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Table 3 Summary of the effects of the prenatal and postnatal maternal manipulations on the offspring’s performance in the elevated plus maze and open field exploration tests in adulthood

From: Deficient maternal care resulting from immunological stress during pregnancy is associated with a sex-dependent enhancement of conditioned fear in the offspring

Experiment Experimental groups (prenatal treatment–postnatal rearing)
SAL-SAL SAL-POL POL-SAL POL-POL
Elevated plus maze     
 Total distance moved (m) 9.56 ± 0.56 10.48 ± 0.57 11.34 ± 0.64 10.85 ± 0.51
 Distance moved (m) in open arms 1.57 ± 0.46 1.25 ± 0.22 1.40 ± 0.37 1.16 ± 0.29
 Percent open arm entries 32.63 ± 4.53 31.39 ± 3.96 28.83 ± 3.35 31.57 ± 3.86
 Percent time spent in open arms 27.79 ± 5.10 20.76 ± 3.55 18.78 ± 3.02 17.52 ± 2.98
Open field     
 Total distance moved (m) 123.71 ± 3.95 119.25 ± 8.05 112.55 ± 12.42 135.54 ± 9.86
 Distance moved (m) in center zone 7.27 ± 0.78 7.56 ± 1.25 8.50 ± 2.18 8.62 ± 1.48
 Time in center zone (s) 137.72 ± 21.29 116.92 ± 19.88 163.40 ± 57.76 175.94 ± 32.36
 Center zone entries 68 ± 7 67 ± 11 77 ± 19 84 ± 13
  1. SAL-SAL, offspring subjected to prenatal vehicle exposure and raised by vehicle-treated surrogate mothers; SAL-POL, offspring subjected to prenatal vehicle exposure and raised by PolyI:C-treated surrogate mothers; POL-SAL, offspring subjected to prenatal PolyI:C exposure and raised by vehicle-treated surrogate mothers; POL-POL, offspring subjected to prenatal PolyI:C exposure and raised by PolyI:C-treated surrogate mothers. No significant group differences were detected in any of the dependent measures. All values are means ± SEM