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Table 3 Group* comparisons for selected substructure volumes controlling for age, IQ, and TBV

From: Teasing apart the heterogeneity of autism: Same behavior, different brains in toddlers with fragile X syndrome and autism

Region FXS v Controls Diff (SE), % diff FXS v DD Diff (SE), % diff FXS v TYP Diff (SE), % diff FXS v AUT Diff (SE), % diff
Caudate nucleus
Total 2.67 (.4), 40% *** 2.62 (.4), 45% *** 2.41 (.5), 34% *** 1.93 (.3), 26% ***
Right 1.33 (.2), 39% *** 1.45 (.2), 44% *** 1.20 (.2), 34% *** 0.98 (.1), 26% ***
Left 1.34 (.2), 41% *** 1.47 (.2), 46% *** 1.21 (.2), 35% *** 0.96 (.1), 26% ***
Putamen
Total 0.67 (.3), 8% ** 0.71 (.3), 9% * 0.64 (.3), 8% * 0.30 (.2), 3%
Right 0.34 (.1), 8% ** 0.36 (.2), 9% * 0.32 (.2), 8% * 0.18 (.1), 4%
Left 0.33 (.1), 8% ** 0.35 (.2), 9% * 0.31 (.2), 8% 0.12 (.1), 3%
Globus pallidus
Total 0.35 (.1), 13% *** 0.42 (.1), 16% *** 0.27 (.1), 10% * 0.13 (.1), 4% *
Right 0.18 (.1), 13% *** 0.22 (.1), 17% *** 0.13 (.1), 9% * 0.10 (.04), 7% *
Left 0.17 (.1), 13% *** 0.20 (.1), 15% ** 0.14 (.1), 10% * 0.02 (.04), 2%
Amygdala
Total −0.25 (.1), −7% * −0.24 (.2), −7% −0.27 (.2), −8% −0.73 (.1), −19% ***
Right −.14 (.1), −8% * −0.11 (.1), −6% −0.16 (.1), −9% −0.40 (.1), −20% ***
Left −.12 (.1), −7% −0.13 (.1), −8% −0.10 (.1), −6% −0.33 (.1), −18% ***
Hippocampus
Total 0.39 (.3), 7% 1.16 (.3), 26% *** −0.39 (.4), −6% −0.22 (.2), −4%
Right 0.26 (.2), 10% 0.64 (.2), 28% *** −0.11 (.2), 4% −0.02 (.1), −1%
Left 0.12 (.2), 5% 0.52 (.2), 24% ** −0.27 (.2), −9% −0.20 (.1), −7%
  1. Note: FXS group refers to entire sample of children with FXS. The Control group contains both DD and TYP subjects, but comparisons with the DD and TYP subgroups are also displayed separately.
  2. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001