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Table 5 Hypothesized similarities and differences in core symptoms and associated features of ASD and PWS

From: Prader–Willi syndrome and autism spectrum disorders: an evolving story

  PWS ASD
Repetitive behaviors + +
Symmetry/exactness + +
Narrow interests (not food) ± ±
Skin picking + Limited data
Hoarding + Limited data
Need for sameness + +
Verbal perseveration + +
Stereotypies ±
Self-injury (not skin picking) ±
Poor peer relations + +
Impaired theory of mind Limited data ±
Poor emotional recognition Limited data ±
Aberrant face processing Limited data +
Problems reading social cues Limited data +
Psychosis ± Limited data
 Positive symptoms ± Limited data
 Negative symptoms + Limited data
Anxiety disorders + +
Depressive disorders ± ±
Excessive daytime sleepiness +
Sleep-onset insomnia ±
Nocturnal awakening ± ±
Obstructive sleep apnea ±
Obesity ± ±
Hyperphagia +
Food preoccupations ±
Limited food selectivity ±
Eating/food rituals ± ±
Cognitive deficits + ±
Facility w/jigsaw puzzles ± Limited data
  1. (+) indicates a consistently seen feature, (−) indicates a feature that is not generally present, (±) indicates a feature that is variably present or more inconsistently found