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Table 2 Working memory task performance

From: Comparison of spatial working memory in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and those diagnosed with ADHD; A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Parameter TD (n = 21) ARND (n = 22) ADHD (n = 20) Significancea Post-hoc tests
  Mean Std Dev Mean Std Dev Mean Std Dev   
Working memory index (WISC) 100.86 12.65 69.62 16.49 89.80 12.28 F = 29.986 P <0.001 TD > ARNDbP <0.001
ADHD > ARND P <0.001
Working memory - Parent (BRIEF) 50.38 9.96 75.50 9.09 69.05 7.79 F = 44.320 P <0.001 TD < ARNDbP <0.001
TD < ADHD P <0.001
1-back accuracy (%) 94.87 4.25 80.94 12.06 79.79 13.88 F = 12.495 P < 0.001 TD > ARNDcP <0.001
TD > ADHD P <0.001
0-back accuracy (%) 95.63 3.48 88.64 8.15 89.46 10.34 F = 5.052 P = 0.009  
1-back errors (%) 1.93 2.03 11.42 9.89 11.39 8.08 F = 11.158 P <0.001 TD < ARNDcP <0.001
TD < ADHD P <0.001
1-back non-response (%) 3.20 3.26 7.64 6.93 10.21 10.59 F = 4.642 P = 0.013  
1-back response time (ms) 538 115 623 192 667 183 F = 3.197 P = 0.048  
0-back response time (ms) 740 184 910 330 964 266 F = 3.983 P = 0.024  
1-back response variability (ms) 203 78 305 110 336 131 F = 8.669 P <0.001 TD < ARNDcP = 0.008
TD < ADHD P = 0.001
0-back response variability (ms) 188 98 275 126 303 123 F = 5.581 P = 0.006  
  1. aBonferroni-corrected P value for multiple comparisons = 0.005; bTukey’s HSD test; cGames-Howell test. ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; ARND, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder; BRIEF, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; TD, typically developing; WISC, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.