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Table 9 Regions in which the ARND group had greater activation than the ADHD group in the subtractive contrast ( P> 0.0167)

From: Comparison of spatial working memory in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and those diagnosed with ADHD; A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Region Hemisphere Gyrus BA Talairach Coordinates Voxel T Cluster Extent
     X Y Z   
Frontal Right Inferior Frontal 45 50 37 7 2.52 20
   Inferior Frontal 10 46 43 3 2.19  
   Middle Frontal 10 38 43 7 2.34 16
   Middle Frontal 9 32 45 36 2.61 40
   Middle Frontal 8 26 39 39 2.47  
   Paracentral Lobule 5 6 −38 53 3.37  
   Precentral 4 30 −23 51 2.55 27
Sub-lobar Left Thalamus   −2 −23 12 2.66 37
   Thalamus   −4 −22 20 2.32  
  Right Claustrum   38 −22 −4 2.43 15
   Insula 13 30 −32 22 2.41 20
   Thalamus   16 −35 5 2.51 16
Limbic Left Cingulate 31 −16 −44 22 2.32 15
   Posterior Cingulate 30 −10 −62 12 3.49 460
   Posterior Cingulate 29 −8 −38 17 2.58 15
   Posterior Cingulate 23 −10 −28 24 2.48  
   Posterior Cingulate 23 −2 −34 24 2.40 46
  Right Cingulate 24 4 15 27 2.66 27
   Cingulate 31 12 −38 26 2.33 15
   Parahippocampal 30 16 −45 1 2.60 20
Parietal Left Postcentral 40 −61 −24 21 2.51  
   Precuneus 7 −12 −66 48 3.42  
   Precuneus 19 −32 −80 37 2.37 14
  Right Inferior Parietal Lobule 40 63 −30 24 3.72 712
   Postcentral 40 65 −20 21 3.61  
   Postcentral 3 20 −28 62 2.99 43
   Precuneus 7 16 −73 48 3.49 3,072
Occipital Left Cuneus 18 −12 −71 16 2.61  
   Cuneus 19 −14 −82 37 2.40 16
   Lingual 18 −8 −58 5 3.06  
  Right Middle Occipital 19 42 −81 10 2.58 19
Temporal Left Fusiform 20 −30 −36 −15 2.60 55
   Superior Temporal 42 −61 −32 18 2.66 41
  Right Fusiform 37 40 −47 −9 2.92 26
   Fusiform 20 30 −40 −15 2.80 20
   Middle Temporal 21 59 −47 1 2.61 19
   Middle Temporal 37 46 −56 5 2.40 49
   Superior Temporal 41 50 −30 13 3.07  
Cerebellum Left Culmen   −20 −32 −14 2.48  
  1. ADHD, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder; ARND, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder.