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Table 2 WS fMRI studies using low IQ as exclusion criterion for WS participants

From: The effect of intellectual ability on functional activation in a neurodevelopmental disorder: preliminary evidence from multiple fMRI studies in Williams syndrome

Author (year) fMRI task(s) Group n Sex Age (SD) IQ measure IQ composite mean (SD)
Meyer-Lindenberg et al. (2004) Visual processing tasks (1. Passive viewing; 2. Visuospatial matching/constructive; 3.Visual attention) WS 13a 6 M, 7 F 28.3 (9.6) WASI (short form) 92.1 (9.6)
CTL 11 6 M, 5 F 30.8 (7.6) WAIS-R (short form) 96.8 (6.5)
Meyer-Lindenberg et al. (2005a) Visual matching (stimuli = faces, scenes, shapes) WS 9 3 M, 6 F 31.6 (9.6) nr 92.4 (7.8)
CTL 10 6 M, 4 F 29.0 (4.9) nr 97.5 (6.4)
Meyer-Lindenberg et al. (2005b) Passive viewing (stimuli = faces, houses, scrambled) WS 13a 6 M, 7 F 28.3 (9.6) WASI (short form) 92.1 (9.6)
CTL 11b 6 M, 7 F 28.3 (9.6) WAIS-R (short form) 97.9 (7.6)
Muñoz et al. (2010) Visual/Emotional processing tasks (1. Emotional content labeling; 2. Scenes matching; 3. Shape matching) WS 13a 6 M, 7 F 28.3 (9.62) WASI (short form) 92.1 (9.6)
CTL 11** 6 M, 5 F 30.8 (7.6) WAIS-R (short form) 97.9 (7.6)
Olsen et al. (2009) Passive viewing (stimuli = checkerboard, expanding ring; with button press) WS 10 5 M, 5 F 31.3 (9.0) WASI (short form) 92.1 (8.8)
CTL 10 3 M, 7 F 29.3 (5.0) WAIS-R (short form) 96.2 (7.4)
Sarpal et al. (2008) Passive viewing (stimuli = faces, houses, scrambled) WS 9 6 F, 3 M 31.6 (nr) nr 92.4 (nr)
   CTL 10 4 M, 6 F 29 (nr) nr 97.5 (nr)
  1. Eighteen Williams syndrome (WS) fMRI studies use typically developing controls (CTL) as a contrast group. These six of the 18 studies exclude WS participants with low IQ.
  2. aThe same group of WS participants was used in these studies.
  3. bThe same group of control participants was used in these studies.
  4. nr, not reported; WAIS-R, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised (Wechsler, 1981); WASI, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999).