Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Characteristics of the sample at 4 years, divided according to outcome.

From: Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

  TD SLI NLI LNV Cohen d,
TD vs SLI
Children, n 60 15 4 3 -
Male, % 0.53 0.67 0.50 0.33 -
SALTa/language concern, % 0.08 0.40 0.50 0.00 -
Test scores,b mean ± SD      
   WPPSI, block design 0.78 ± 0.97 0.38 ± 0.84 -1.92 ± 0.83 -0.11 ± 0.51 0.43
   WPPSI, matrices 0.29 ± 0.72 -0.29 ± 0.68 -1.00 ± 0.27 -1.56 ± 0.51 0.83
   BAS, verbal comprehension 0.53 ± 0.87 -0.30 ± 0.85 -0.79 ± 0.42 -0.23 ± 1.00 0.97
   BAS, naming vocabulary 1.31 ± 0.75 0.27 ± 1.07 -0.93 ± 0.96 0.54 ± 0.91 1.28
   GAPS, sentence repetition 0.97 ± 0.93 -0.16 ± 0.87 -0.87 ± 0.29 0.43 ± 0.78 1.25
   GAPS, non-word repetition 0.70 ± 0.82 -0.59 ± 1.27 -0.79 ± 0.91 -0.26 ± 1.08 1.42
   Bus story, information 0.17 ± 1.19 -1.48 ± 0.71 -1.78 ± 0.48 -1.30 ± 0.52 1.50
   Bus story, sentence length 0.73 ± 1.22 -0.68 ± 0.82 -1.30 ± 0.76 -0.83 ± 0.61 1.24
   CCC-2, general communication 0.13 ± 0.83 -0.83 ± 0.61 -0.57 ± 0.46 -0.72 ± 0.74 1.23
   TEGI, third singular 0.93 ± 0.14 0.62 ± 0.36 0.33 ± 0.38 0.81 ± 0.19 1.56
   TEGI, past tense 0.94 ± 0.09 0.72 ± 0.29 0.57 ± 0.25 0.86 ± 0.12 1.48
  1. aAbbreviations: BAS, British Ability Scales; CCC-2, Children's Communication Checklist, version 2; GAPS, Grammar and Phonology Screening Test; GCC, General Communication Composite; LNV, low nonverbal; NLI, nonspecific language impairment; SALT, speech and language therapy; SLI, specific language impairment; TD, typical development; TEGI, Test of Early Grammatical Impairment; WPPSI: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.
  2. bScores shown as z-scores based on test norms, except for TEGI, where scores are proportion correct.