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Table 3 Scores on measures at 18 to 20 months in relation to outcome at 4 years

From: Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

Measures at 18 to 20 months Status at 4 years old, mean ± SD Cohen db
  TD a , n = 60 SLI, n = 15  
OCDI z-scores    
   Production -0.40 ± 0.73 -0.84 ± 1.06 0.56
   Comprehension -0.12 ± 1.18 -0.45 ± 0.84 0.30
   VABS, scaled scoresc    
   Communication 101.13 ± 9.7 94.27 ± 9.32 0.72
   Daily living 103.07 ± 8.3 98.53 ± 11.24 0.51
   Social 95.28 ± 4.96 94.07 ± 4.04 0.26
   Motor 98.88 ± 8.35 97.67 ± 4.24 0.16
MSEL t-scoresd    
   Expressive language 48.08 ± 11.16 41.13 ± 8.52 0.66
   Receptive language 59.42 ± 10.31 50.00 ± 14.35 0.85
   Visual reception 56.07 ± 10.65 48.93 ± 10.12 0.69
   Motor 49.22 ± 8.02 45.6 ± 9.16 0.44
  1. aAbbreviations; MSEL, Mullen Scales of Early Learning; OCDI, Oxford Communicative Development Inventory; SLI, specific language impairment; TD, typical development; VABS, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale.
  2. bFor individual two-tailed t-test, uncorrected for multiple comparisons, effect size of 0.57 was significant at P = 0.05 level and effect size of 0.83 was significant at P = 0.005.
  3. cAge scaled score based on mean ± SD of 100 ± 15.
  4. dThe t-score is based on mean ± SD of 50 ± 10.