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Table 2 Functional connectivity MRI studies on working memory in high-functioning adolescents with ASD

From: Working memory deficits in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates

Study Mean age in years (SD) Participant groups General IQ (SD) Working memory task (Are there differences in task performance?) Results
Activation in ASD Connectivity in ASD
Silk et al. (2006) [69] 14.7 (2.9) (n = 7) Autism, AS 114 (16.9) Mental rotation task (accuracy: N; response time: N) ↓ Anterior cingulate, ↓ DLPFC, ↓ caudate nucleus, ↓ premotor cortex, = posterior parietal cortex ↓ Fronto-striatal
15.0 (1.8) (n = 9) TYP
Koshino et al. (2008) [72] 24.5 (10.2) (n = 11) HFA 104.5 (13.1) n-back (load = 0, 1, 2) (accuracy: N; response time: N) ↓ Inferior left prefrontal region; No activation: right posterior temporal region; Shifted activation: fusiform face area ↓ Frontal-parietal
28.7 (10.9) (n = 11) TYP 108.6 (9.1)
Solomon et al. (2009) [71] 15.2 (1.7) (n = 22) HFA, AS 107 (14) POP task (accuracy low trials: N; accuracy high trials: Y; response time: N) Low control trials: =; High control trials: ↓ anterior frontal region, ↓ parietal region, ↓ occipital region ↓ Frontal-parietal
  16.0 (2.0) (n = 23) TYP 113 (11)    
  1. AS: Asperger syndrome; ASD: autism spectrum disorders; DLPFC: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; HFA: high-functioning autism; POP: preparing-to-overcome prepotency; TYP: typical development.
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