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Table 1 Magnetic resonance imaging comparing subjects with Down’s syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease in the general population

From: Dementia in Down’s syndrome: an MRI comparison with Alzheimer’s disease in the general population

  DS+ (n = 19) mean ± SD DS- (n = 45) mean ± SD DS HC (n = 43) mean ± SD AD (n = 46) mean ± SD AD HC mean ± SD F effect of group (P-value) F effect of gender (P-value) Significant pairwise comparisons
Age (years)* 51.52 ± 7.89 38.07 ± 12.24 33.75 ± 11.37 76.59 ± 5.3 75.87 ± 5.53 157.556 (<0.001) NS DS+<AD; DS+<AD HC; DS-<AD; DS-<DS+; DS HC<AD; DS HC<DS+; DS HC<AD HC
Education (years)     11.13 ± 3.22 11.49 ± 3 NS NS NS
Sex (female:male) 10:9 31:14 29:14 22:24 11:28    
MMSE* 9.32 ± 4.46 13.88 ± 5.56 15.23 ± 2.53 22.48 ± 3.74 28.74 ± 3.23 35.757 (<0.001) NS AD<AD HC; DS+<AD; DS+<AD HC; DS-<AD; DS-<AD HC; DS HC<AD; DS HC<AD HC
CAMCOG* 33.72 ± 19.77 52.98 ± 21.48 114.83 ± 16.52    59.323 (<0.001) NS DS+<DS HC; DS-<DS HC
Whole brain volume (WBV, ml)* 836.33 ± 98.72 961.96 ± 111.16 1100 ± 101.23 904.32 ± 83.3 930.77 ± 77.41 23.296 (<0.001) 28.717 (<0.001) DS+<AD; DS+<AD HC; DS+<DS HC; DS-<AD HC; DS-<DS HC; DS+<DS-
Total intracranial volume (TIV, ml)* 1096.46 ± 97.76 1195.7 ± 120.08 1387.95 ± 125.08 1292.39 ± 109.27 1277.27 ± 97.95 38.112 (<0.001) 55.296 (<0.001) DS+<AD; DS+<AD HC; DS+<DS HC; DS-<AD; DS-<AD HC; DS-<DS HC
Hippocampus (ml)* 4.52 ± 1.06 5.56 ± 0.81 6.82 ± 0.62 5.13 ± 1.04 6.19 ± 0.85 13.242 (<0.001) NS AD<AD HC; AD<DS HC; DS+<DS-; DS+<AD HC; DS+<DS HC; DS-<DS HC
Hippocampal volume normalised by TIV (% TIV)* 0.41 ± 0.09 0.47 ± 0.07 0.49 ± 0.05 0.4 ± 0.07 0.5 ± 0.06 13.095 (<0..001) NS AD<DS HC; AD<AD HC; DS+<DS-; DS+<AD HC; DS+<DS HC
Left hippocampus (ml)* 2.37 ± 0.58 2.97 ± 0.59 3.52 ± 0.38 2.62 ± 0.51 3.17 ± 0.46 12.723 (<0.001) NS AD<AD HC; AD<DS HC; DS+<DS HC; DS-<DS HC
Left hippocampus normalised by TIV (% TIV)* 0.22 ± 0.05 0.24 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.03 0.2 ± 0.03 0.25 ± 0.03 12.339 (<0.001) NS AD<DS-; AD<AD HC; AD<DS HC; DS+<DS HC; DS+<DS-
Right hippocampus (ml)** 2.16 ± 0.52 2.7 ± 0.47 3.31 ± 0.31 2.48 ± 0.58 3.02 ± 0.44 11.540 (<0.001) NS AD<AD HC; AD<DS HC; DS+<DS HC; DS+<AD HC; DS+<DS-
Right hippocampus normalised by TIV (% TIV)* 0.2 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.04 0.24 ± 0.03 0.19 ± 0.04 0.24 ± 0.03 11.660 (<0.001) NS AD<AD HC; AD<DS HC; DS+<AD HC; DS+<DS HC; DS+<DS-
Temporal lobes (ml)* 104.23 ± 16.84 121.75 ± 14.95 136.16 ± 16.65 101.78 ± 15 110.57 ± 14.21 5.947 (<0.001) NS AD<DS-; AD<AD HC
Temporal lobes normalised by TIV (% TIV)* 9.48 ± 1.1 10.2 ± 0.93 9.8 ± 0.77 7.86 ± 0.81 8.65 ± 0.8 5.998 (<0.001) 4.2 (0.042) AD<DS-; AD<AD HC
Left temporal lobe (ml)* 52.05 ± 8.55 61.26 ± 7.68 68.72 ± 8.15 51.97 ± 8.35 56.74 ± 9.61 4.967 (0.001) NS AD<AD HC; AD<DS-
Left temporal lobe normalised by TIV (% TIV)** 4.73 ± 0.57 5.12 ± 0.48 4.95 ± 0.4 4.02 ± 0.51 4.43 ± 0.58 4.851 (0.001) NS AD<AD HC; AD<DS-
Right temporal lobe (ml)** 52.17 ± 8.7 60.02 ± 7.81 67.37 ± 9.63 49.8 ± 9.14 53.82 ± 7.21 3.067 (0.018) NS AD<AD HC
Right temporal lobe normalised by TIV (% TIV)** 4.74 ± 0.54 5.0 ± 0.57 4.85 ± 0.49 3.84 ± 0.57 4.22 ± 0.51 3.112 (0.017) NS AD<AD HC
Lateral ventricles (ml)* 26.78 ± 21.32 17.21 ± 15.94 10.56 ± 8.38 49 ± 21.81 27.72 ± 12.27 9.238 (<0.001) NS AD>AD HC; AD>DS HC
Lateral ventricles normalised by TIV (% TIV)* 2.44 ± 1.86 1.43 ± 1.24 0.76 ± 0.61 3.8 ± 1.65 2.16 ± 0.89 9.009 (<0.001) NS AD>AD HC; AD>DS HC
Left lateral ventricle (ml)* 12.7 ± 12.08 7.52 ± 6.47 5.26 ± 4.36 22.68 ± 10.75 13.6 ± 6.07 7.115 (<0.001) NS AD>AD HC; AD>DS HC
Left lateral ventricle normalised by TIV (% TIV)* 1.16 ± 1.04 0.63 ± 0.51 0.38 ± 0.32 1.76 ± 0.82 1.06 ± 0.45 6.967 (<0.001) NS AD>AD HC; AD>DS HC
Right lateral ventricle (ml)** 14 ± 9.69 9.66 ± 9.58 5.3 ± 4.36 26.17 ± 11.63 14.11 ± 6.7 10.3 (<0.001) NS AD>AD HC; AD>DS HC; DS+>DS HC
Right lateral ventricle normalised by TIV (% TIV)** 1.27 ± 0.86 0.8 ± 0.7 0.38 ± 0.31 2.0 ± 0.88 1.1 ± 0.48 9.995 (<0.001) NS AD>AD HC; AD>DS HC; DS+>DS HC
  1. *P <0.001; **P <0.05. Age, gender and TIV were added as covariates in the analysis. DS+, people with Down’s syndrome and dementia; DS-, people with Down’s syndrome without dementia; DS HC Down’s syndrome healthy controls, AD Alzheimer’s disease, AD HC Alzheimer’s disease healthy controls, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, CAMCOG Cambridge cognitive examination, TIV total intracranial volume, NS not significant.