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Table 1 Demographic, MRI and 1 H MRS characteristics by group

From: Hippocampal glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in adults with Down syndrome: a preliminary study using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS)

  Non-demented DS (DS-) Demented DS (DS+) Healthy controls (HC) Significance
N = 85 n = 35 n = 11 n = 39  
Demographics, mean (percent)     
 Male no. 26 (74%) 6 (55%) 24 (62%) p = 0.358a
 Age, mean (SD) 35 (12) 52 (6) 35 (12) p < 0.001b
Cognitive measures     
 CAMCOG (total) score 56 (22) 32 (21) 119 (3) p < 0.001b
 CAMCOG (short-term memory) score 12 (7) 5 (4) 22 (2) p < 0.001b
MRI VOI proportions     
 Grey proportion (average R and L) 0.76 (0.07) 0.75 (0.11) 0.72 (0.08) p = 0.187b
 White proportion (average R and L) 0.24 (0.07) 0.25 (0.11) 0.28 (0.08) p = 0.187b
Mean CSF (R) 0.13 (0.07) 0.15 (0.04) 0.07 (0.04) p = 0.000b
Mean CSF (L) 0.10 (0.07) 0.17 (0.09) 0.07 (0.04) p = 0.006b
Mean metabolite concentration     
 Glx (R hippocampus) 38.89 (6.13) 41.04 (4.16) 38.49 (7.03) p = 0.309c
 Glx (L hippocampus) 36.51 (5.25) 36.56 (7.20) 36.59 (5.72) p = 0.955c
 Glx (average of R and L) 38.14 (5.61) 38.41 (4.71) 37.57 (5.16) p = 0.853c
  1. L left, R right, CAMCOG Cambridge Cognitive Examination, VOI volume of interest.
  2. aChi-square.
  3. bANOVA.
  4. cANCOVA (covaried with age).