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Table 1 Characteristics of different tests of nonword repetition

From: Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism

  NEPSY CTOPP CNRep NRT (current study)
repetition of nonsense words
Scoring method • Scored online • Syllable-level: score is number of syllables repeated without errors • Errors defined as distortions or omissions of syllables (not insertions) • Scored online • Word-level: score is number of whole words repeated without errors • Errors defined as phoneme distortions, omissions, or insertions • Scored online • Word-level: score is number of whole words repeated without errors • Errors defined as phoneme distortions, omissions, or insertions • Scored offline via transcripts • Phoneme-level: score is percentage of phonemes repeated without errors • Errors defined as distortions or omissions of phonemes (not insertions)
Total number of nonwords 13 30 40 12 (typically 16)
Range of syllable lengths 2–5 1–10 2–5 2–4 (typically 1 syllable words also included)
Articulatory complexity High: most nonwords contain at least one consonant cluster (e.g., crumsee) Mixed: 8 nonwords contain consonant clusters (e.g., burloogugendaplo) Mixed: half of the nonwords contain consonant clusters (e.g., prindle) Low: no consonant clusters, late-acquired phonemes not used
Wordlikeness Mixed: Low: Mixed: Low:
• Some nonwords contain English words or affixes (e.g., pledgyfriskree, inkewsment) • Low phonotactic probabilities • No embedded English words • Low phonotactic probabilities • Some nonwords contain English words or affixes (e.g., penl, glistering) • High phonotactic probabilities • No embedded English words • Low phonotactic probabilities
Stopping rule Test is discontinued after 4 consecutive scores of 0. Test is discontinued after 3 consecutive scores of 0. None None
  1. NEPSY a developmental NEuroPSYchological assessment, CTOPP Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, CNRep Children’s Test of Nonword Repetition, NRT Nonword Repetition Test