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Table 3 Descriptive statistics and group contrasts for the proportion of phonemes correct on the nonword repetition test by syllable length

From: Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism

      Cliff’s Δ
  SLI ALI ALN H(2) p Post hoc adjusted SLI < ALI ALI < ALN
(n = 18) (n = 22) (n = 20) Mann–Whitney testsa
2 syllables         
 Median .85 .95 .92 7.51 .02 SLI < [ALI = ALN] .47 −.07
 Range .60–1.00 .80–1.00 .75–1.00      
 Mean (SD) .85 (.11) .93 (.06) .92 (.07)      
 95 % CI for the meanb [.80; .90] [.91; .96] [.89; .95]      
3 syllables         
 Median .79 .86 .96 18.43 <.001 SLI < ALI < ALN .45 .46
 Range .50–.96 .57–1.00 .71–1.00      
 Mean (SD) .78 (.11) .85 (.11) .93 (.07)      
 95 % CI for the meanb [.72; .82] [.80; .89] [.89; .95]      
 % PPC < .90c 89 % 73 % 35 %      
4 syllables         
 Median .60 .64 .81 14.46 <.001 [SLI = ALI] < ALN .20 .48
 Range .33–.78 .36–.96 .53–.94      
 Mean (SD) .60 (.12) .66 (.15) .78 (.12)      
 95 % CI for the meanb [.54; .65] [.59; .71] [.72; .83]      
 % PPC < .75d 89 % 73 % 40 %      
  1. aIndicated pairwise group differences (< or >) based on p values adjusted using the False Discovery Rate method (q < .05) [63]
  2. bBased on 10,000 bootstrapped samples
  3. cCompared to 95 % of language-impaired children ages 5; 8 to 12; 2 (N = 44) based on enrollment in language intervention [54]
  4. dCompared to 98 % of language-impaired children ages 5; 8 to 12; 2 (N = 44) based on enrollment in language intervention [54]