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Table 4 Means (standard deviations), group comparisons, and associations with degree of language impairment in ASD

From: Memory in language-impaired children with and without autism

  Median     Cliff’s Δ ASD PIQ-CELF CLS discrepancy τ b
Mean (SD)
Assessment SLI ALI ALN H(2) p Post hoc adjusted SLI < ALI ALI < ALN
n = 18 n = 22 n = 20 Mann–Whitney testsa
CELF Number Repetition Forwardc 7.0 8.0 10.0 19.36 <.001 [SLI = ALI] < ALN .21 .65 −.53**
6.83 (1.95) 7.36 (2.26) 10.50 (3.14)       
NEPSY Narrative Memoryc 6.0 3.5 10.0 22.77 <.001 ALI < SLI < ALN −.39 .77 −.53**
5.89 (2.59) 4.05 (2.98) 9.40 (3.19)       
CELF Number Repetition Backwardc 7.5 7.5 12.0 16.54 <.001 [SLI = ALI] < ALN .04 .61 −.42*
7.33 (3.18) 7.64 (3.54) 11.55 (2.93)       
Codingc 8.0 8.0 7.5 0.01 .99     .00
  8.28 (3.75) 8.50 (3.43) 8.25 (3.02)       
Symbol searchc 7.5 8.0 8.0 1.99 .37     −.01
  6.83 (3.24) 8.09 (2.37) 8.05 (2.67)       
WRAML-II Picture Memoryc 11.5 9.5 8.0 5.31 .07     .09
10.56 (3.48) 9.14 (4.95) 7.75 (3.24)      
WRAML-II Finger Windowsc 11.0 10.0 11.0 1.83 .40     .18
9.89 (2.65) 9.77 (2.58) 10.95 (3.32)       
  1. CELF Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, NEPSY a developmental NEuroPSYchological assessment, WRAML-II Wide-Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition
  2. * p < .05; ** p ≤ .001
  3. aIndicated pairwise group differences (< or >) based on p values adjusted using the False Discovery Rate method (q < .05) [63]
  4. bFor both ASD groups combined (ALI + ALN), Kendall’s tau between the degree of language impairment (measured by PIQ-CELF Core Language Score discrepancy score) and the assessment score is reported: negative values indicate that more severe relative language impairments are associated with poorer performance on that assessment
  5. cScaled scores (M = 10, SD = 3)