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Table 2 Cognitive development least square means group comparisons at 6, 12, and 24 months

From: Behavioral, cognitive, and adaptive development in infants with autism spectrum disorder in the first 2 years of life

Cognitive development HR-ASD-High (a) HR-ASD-Mod (b) HR-Neg (c) LR-Neg (d) Overall Group Comparisona Post hoc comparisonsb
(n = 31) (n = 18) (n = 161) (n = 98)
LSM SE LSM SE LSM SE LSM SE df1 df2 F p
6 Month visit
 MSEL ELC 93.9 1.9 98.3 2.4 98.4 0.8 100.5 1.1 3 299 3.2 0.02  
  Expressive Language 42.9 1.3 46.6 1.6 44.5 0.5 46.5 0.7 3 299 3.0 0.03  
  Receptive Language 49.6 1.6 47.9 2.1 49.9 0.7 50.0 0.9 3 299 0.3 0.83  
  Fine Motor 47.8 1.7 51.2 2.1 50.4 0.7 50.2 1.0 3 299 0.7 0.54  
  Gross Motor 43.7 1.5 46.3 2.0 49.0 0.7 50.8 0.9 3 299 5.8 0.0007 a < d
  Visual Reception 47.3 1.6 50.5 2.0 51.4 2.0 53.9 0.9 3 299 4.8 0.0028 a < d
12 Month visit
 MSEL ELC 89.2 2.3 93.8 3.1 101.2 1.0 105.5 1.3 3 299 14.5 <0.0001 a < (c, d)
  Expressive Language 39.5 2.0 37.7 2.8 47.2 0.9 49.6 1.1 3 299 10.0 <0.0001 (a, b) < d
  Receptive Language 36.1 1.5 39.4 2.0 43.5 0.6 45.6 0.8 3 299 11.2 <0.0001 a < (c, d)
  Fine Motor 53.9 1.7 57.9 2.3 57.0 0.7 59.6 0.7 3 299 3.4 0.02  
  Gross Motor 42.7 2.2 45.6 3.0 49.7 1.0 50.4 1.2 3 299 3.7 0.01  
  Visual Reception 47.6 1.7 51.4 2.3 54.3 0.7 55.6 0.9 3 299 6.2 0.0004 a < d
24 Month visit
 MSEL ELC 75.8 3.0 84.1 3.9 103.1 1.3 109.4 1.7 3 299 38.0 <0.0001 (a, b) < (c, d)
  Expressive Language 36.1 2.1 39.1 2.7 49.0 0.9 51.7 1.2 3 299 18.3 <0.0001 a < (c, d), b < d
  Receptive Language 31.1 2.0 38.8 2.6 51.9 0.9 56.0 1.1 3 299 44.9 <0.0001 (a, b) < (c, d)
  Fine Motor 39.9 1.7 42.9 2.3 49.9 0.8 54.6 1.0 3 299 21.6 <0.0001 a < (c, d), (b, c) < d
  Gross Motor 38.4 1.6 43.9 2.1 50.2 0.7 52.0 0.9 3 299 19.8 <0.0001 a < (c, d)
  Visual Reception 39.9 2.0 45.0 2.6 54.9 0.9 55.9 1.1 3 299 20.4 <0.0001 a < (c, d), b < d
  1. MSEL Mullen Scales of Early Learning, ELC Early Learning Composite
  2. aThe Overall Group Comparison serves as an omnibus test comparing the means between the 4 groups to determine whether group means differ based on a mixed model with repeated measures. Model covariates included the difference between the child’s actual age at the visit from the scheduled visit age (6, 12, or 24 months). Other covariates included site and mother’s education. Two-sided at significance level of .05
  3. bPost hoc comparisons with step-up Bonferroni correction. Two-sided at significance level of .05