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Table 3 Adaptive functioning group least square means comparisons at 6, 12, and 24 months

From: Behavioral, cognitive, and adaptive development in infants with autism spectrum disorder in the first 2 years of life

Adaptive functioning HR-ASD-High (a) HR-ASD-Mod (b) HR-Neg (c) LR-Neg (d) Overall Group Comparisona Post hoc comparisonsb
(n = 31) (n = 18) (n = 161) (n = 98)
LSM SE LSM SE LSM SE LSM SE df1 df2 F p
6 Month visit
 VABS-II ABC 87.8 1.9 91.9 2.5 95.1 0.9 97.4 1.1 3 299 6.6 0.0003 a < d
  Social 92.5 2.2 97.3 2.8 99.2 0.9 101.5 1.2 3 299 4.4 0.0045  
  Communication 92.7 2.6 92.5 3.4 98.1 1.2 98.7 1.5 3 299 2.1 0.0947  
  Motor 84.3 2.3 91.5 3.0 91.6 1.0 95.5 1.3 3 299 6.1 0.0005 a < d
  Daily Living Skills 89.4 2.3 92.7 3.0 95.5 3.0 96.0 1.3 3 299 2.5 0.0622  
12 Month visit
 VABS-II ABC 87.1 1.8 92.4 2.3 97.5 0.8 101.1 1.0 3 299 17.7 <0.0001 a < (c, d)
  Social 89.3 1.8 94.8 2.5 98.8 0.8 100.5 1.0 3 299 10.5 <0.0001  
  Communication 86.2 2.1 91.8 2.8 99.0 0.9 102.7 1.7 3 299 17.9 <0.0001 a < (c, d)
  Motor 94.1 1.9 99.2 2.5 100.7 0.8 103.3 1.0 3 299 6.1 <0.0001 a < d
  Daily Living Skills 87.7 1.9 89.5 2.6 94.2 0.8 98.4 1.0 3 299 10.1 <0.0001 a < d
24 Month visit
 VABS-II ABC 84.5 1.6 91.0 2.0 101.2 0.7 105.0 0.9 3 299 48.2 <0.0001 (a, b) < (c, d)
  Social 83.7 1.7 91.5 2.1 100.6 0.7 103.0 1.0 3 299 38.0 <0.0001 (a, b) < (c, d)
  Communication 84.2 1.8 90.8 2.2 101.9 0.8 105.2 1.0 3 299 42.9 <0.0001 (a, b) < (c, d)
  Motor 92.9 1.7 95.1 2.1 100.3 0.7 102.8 0.9 3 299 10.9 <0.0001 a < (c, d)
  Daily Living Skills 87.6 1.7 93.7 2.1 102.4 0.7 106.6 0.9 3 299 36.7 <0.0001 (a, b) < (c, d)
  1. VABS-II Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, ABC Adaptive Behavior Composite
  2. aThe Overall Group Comparison serves as an omnibus test comparing the means between the 4 groups to determine whether group means differ based on a mixed model with repeated measures. Model covariates included the difference between the child’s actual age at the visit from the scheduled visit age (6, 12, or 24 months). Other covariates included site and mother’s education. Two-sided at significance level of .05
  3. bPost hoc comparisons with step-up Bonferroni correction. Two-sided at significance level of .05