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Table 2 Global and other cognitive domains and outcome measures in fragile X syndrome

From: Updated report on tools to measure outcomes of clinical trials in fragile X syndrome

Domain Outcome measure Shorter term Longer term Quality of tools
Intellectual quotient Wechsler_WAIS-IV, WPPSI-IV, WISC-V   Yes ++ [2325, 32, 33]
Stanford-Binet 5   Yes ++ [22, 33, 34, 46, 112]
Multiple cognitive skills NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery Yesa Yes + [3538]
Adaptive behavior
  Vineland-II   Yes ++/+++ [19, 29, 44, 4649, 98, 112]
ILS   Yes + [9799]
W-ADL   Yes + [100]
Memory & Learning
  WJ working memory Yes Yes + [50, 51]
RBANS Yes Yes +/++ [5356]
SB-5 Block Span Yes Yes + [22, 33]
Executive function
  KiTAP (4 subtests) Yes Yes ++/+++ [44, 46, 6063, 112]
WJ auditory attention Yes Yes + [50, 51]
WJ digits reversed Yes Yes + [50, 51]
Language
  PPVT-4   Yes + [66, 67, 7274]
EVT-2   Yes + [68]
CELF-5/P2   Yes + [66, 69, 70]
FMP Yes   + [7275]
ELS Yes Yes ++ [6, 21, 44, 76]
Social cognition
  SRS Yes Yes +/++ [15, 17, 46, 78, 80, 81, 112, 113]
Eye tracking Yes Yes ++ [85, 87, 88]
SPPA ? ? ? [89]
Academic achievement
  WJ Achievement III   Yes ? [9093]
WIAT-II   Yes
  1. Abbreviations: Wechsler_WAIS-IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 4th ed, WPPSI-IV Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 4th ed, WISC-V Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 5th ed; Stanford Binet5, 5th edition, NIH National Institute of Health, Vineland-II Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-2nd Ed, ILS Independent Living Scales, W-ADL Waismen Activities of Daily Living Scale, WJ Woodcock Johnston, RBANS Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neurological Status, KiTAP Test of Attentional Performance for Children, PPVT-4 Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4th ed, EVT-2 Expressive Vocabulary Test-2nd ed, CELF-5/P2 Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-5th edition/Preschool-2nd ed, FMP fast-mapping performance, ELS expressive language sampling, SRS Social Responsive Scale, SPPA Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, WIAT-II Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II. Shorter term deemed suitable for clinical trials lasting <12 months; Longer term deemed suitable for clinical trials lasting >=12 months. Grading system: +++ strong evidence, ++ moderate evidence, + limited evidence, ? unknown due to poor methodological quality, blank cell no evidence available
  2. aYes applies for some subtests