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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Fig. 1

From: Memory profiles in Down syndrome across development: a review of memory abilities through the lifespan

Fig. 1

LTM effect sizes from past studies, divided by presentation modality. Effect sizes calculated using Cohen’s d ((DS group mean–control group mean)/pooled standard deviation) for studies that reported effect size data. An effect size of zero indicates equivalent performance between the DS and control group. A total of 16 effect sizes were calculated for LTM. All control groups were typically developing children matched on overall mental age abilities. Lower scores indicate worse impairment. Although a greater number of LTM studies exist, the data provided in additional studies precluded the calculation of effect sizes or did not meet our criteria for inclusion. Descriptions of studies included in this figure can be found in Table 1 and Additional file 1: Table S1 (for detailed task descriptions)

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