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Table 3 Studies Examining WM Skills in Individuals with DS Organized by Age Group and Presented Chronologically

From: Memory profiles in Down syndrome across development: a review of memory abilities through the lifespan

Study Comparison Group Matching Assessment DS Group CA DS Group MA Tasks Findings
School Age and Adolescent studies (6 to 17 years old)
 Vicari 1995 [118] NVMA-matched TD
ID group
Leiter M=16.6 M=5.2 Verbal & Spatial WM
Backwards Digit Span
Backwards Corsi Span
DS< TD-NVMA & ID
DS< TD-NVMA & ID
Munir 2000 [58] MA-matched TD,
CA-matched TD, & FXS
BPVS M= 11.17 M=6.09 Verbal WM
WISC-III Backward Digit Span
DS > FXS; DS < TD-MA & TD-CA
Pennington 2003 [9] MA-matched TD DAS M=14
(Range=11-19)
M=4.5 Verbal & Spatial WM
Counting Span
CANTAB Spatial WM
DS ~ TD-MA
DS ~ TD-MA
Lanfranchi 2004 Study 1 [115] MA-matched TD Logical Operations Test M=11.75
(Range=7-16)
M=5.42 Verbal WM
Backward Word Span
Selective Word Recall
Dual Request Word Recall
DS < TD-MA
DS < TD-MA
DS < TD-MA
*As cognitive control required for each task increased, the deficit in DS performance increased as well
Lanfranchi 2004 Study 2 [115] MA-matched TD Logical Operations Test M=14.5
(Range=11-18)
M=4.5 Visual WM
Pathway Backwards
Starting Position Selection
Dual Request Selective Task
DS ~ TD-MA
DS < TD-MA
DS < TD-MA
Visu-Petra 2007 [120] MA-matched TD SB M=14.4
(Range=8-21)
M=5.75 Spatial WM
CANTAB Visual Spatial Working Memory
(recalling hidden items in sequence)
DS ~ TD-MA on strategyTotal Between Errors: DS> TD- MA
4-Box Between Errors: DS~ TD-MA
Lanfranchi 2009 [117] VMA-matched TD
Verbal MA-matched TD
PPVT-R
WPPSI Verbal Scales
M=13.0
(Range=8-19)
M=4.10 Verbal & Spatial WM
Selective Span
Verbal Double Task
Starting Position Selection
Visuospatial Double task
DS< TD-Verbal & TD-VMA
DS< TD-Verbal & TD-VMA
DS~ TD-Verbal & TD-VMA
DS< TD-Verbal & TD-VMA
 Lanfranchi, 2009 [142] MA-matched TD PPVT-R
and RCM
M=12.6
(Range=7-17)
M=6.0 Spatial WM
Selective Position Recall
Selective Pathway Recall
DS<TD-MA
DS~TD-MA
 Edgin 2010 [25] IQ-matched
WS group
WASI M=17.4
(Range=13-23)
-- Verbal & Spatial WM
Backwards Digit Span
Backward Corsi Span
DS ~ WS
DS ~ WS
Lanfranchi 2010 [116] MA-matched TD Logical Operations Test M=15.1
(Range=11-18)
M=5.75 Verbal & Spatial WM
Verbal Dual task
Visuospatial Dual task
DS< TD-MA
DS< TD-MA
 Nash 2011 [194] Comprehension Ability Matched (CAM) TD BAS-II Single Word Reading Test (RA group)
Neale Analysis of Reading Ability II (CAM group)
M=15.5 Reading age=5.2
Rec. Vocab age=7.0
Verbal WM
Working Memory Test Battery for Children
DS < TD-CAM
Lanfranchi 2012 [119] VMA-matched TD PPVT-Revised M=13.7
(Range=8-23)
M=5.25 Verbal & Spatial WM
Selective Word Recall
Verbal Dual task
Verbal/Visuospatial Task
Selective Pathways Recall
Visuospatial Dual Task Visuospatial/Verbal Task
DS < TD-VMA
DS < TD-VMA
DS < TD-VMA
DS ~ TD-VMA
DS < TD-VMA
DS < TD-VMA
Borella 2013 [114] VMA- matched TD PPVT- Revised M=14.6
(Range=10-19)
M=5.58 Verbal WM
Verbal Dual Task
DS < TD-VMA
Costanzo 2013 [90] WS group &
NVMA-matched TD
Leiter-Revised
(for all but 1 participant who received SB)
M= 14.5
(Range=8-21)
M=6.2 Verbal & Spatial WM
Backward Digit Span
Backward Corsi Span
DS< TD-NVMA: DS<WS
DS< TD-NVMA; DS~WS
 Carney 2013 [92] TD participants with similar MA SB Abbreviated Battery M=13.6
(Range=10 –18)
M=6.0 Verbal & Spatial WM
Listening Span
Odd One Out - determining odd figure out of 3 figures, then recalling figure position
DS < TD
DS < TD
 Trezise 2014 [121] CA and NVMA-matched ASD+ID and
Nonspecific ID
Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability: Spatial Span MA score M=14.84
(Range=10-18)
M=8.19 Verbal & Visual WM
Word Repetition Recognition
Line Drawing Recognition
DS < ID; DS~ASD+ID
DS < ID; DS~ASD+ID
Adult and Older adult studies (18 years and older)
 Numminen 2001 [123] NV IQ-matched ID group RCM M=41.8
(Range=38-48)
M=5.03 Verbal & Spatial WM
Digit Span Backward
Visuospatial Test (recall of patterns)
DS~ID
DS~ID
 Roch 2012 [122] Reading comprehension matched TD (CAM) Standardized test of reading comprehension (administered collectively) M~18.5
(Range=11-26)
-- Verbal WM
Backward Word Recall
Backward word recall with visual support
DS < TD-CAM
DS ~ TD-CAM
Belacchi 2014 [108] NVMA and SES matched TD RCM M=18.8
(Range=15-29)
MA~5.5 Verbal & Visual WM
First Word List Recall
First Stop Position Recall
DS < TD-NVMA
DS = TD-NVMA
 Reid 2017 [105] Cornelia de Lange Snydrome group (CdLS) -- M= 24.38 (SD=5.82) M=6.29
(BPVS)
Verbal & Visual WM
Digits Span Backwards
Corsi Backwards
DS~CdLS
DS~CdLS
  1. Key: Comparison Groups: CA chronological-age, DS Down Syndrome, IDIntellectual Disability, MA mental-age, NVMA Nonverbal mental-age, TD typically-developing, VMA Vocabulary (receptive) mental-age, WS William’s Syndrome
  2. Tests: BAS British Ability Scales, DAS Differential Ability Scales, Leiter Leiter Performance Intelligence Scales, PPVT-R Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, RCM Raven’s Coloured Matrices, SB Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, WASI Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, WPPSI Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
  3. Note: Italicized authors’ names indicate studies included in effect size analyses