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Table 2 Effect sizes for MSPSQ comparisons for each neurodevelopmental disorder group compared to the TD group

From: A cross-syndrome cohort comparison of sleep disturbance in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome, Angelman syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and tuberous sclerosis complex

  AS–TD SMS–TD TSC–TD ASD–TD
Sleep anxietya − .09 − .01 − .18
Bedtime resistanceb − .07 − .19 − .12 − .27
Sleep onset latency − .11 − .11 − .22 − .59**
Night wakingb − .60** − .76** − .35* − .49*
Sleep-disordered breathingb − .47* − .68** − .17 − .30
Parasomniab − .45* − .64** − .38* − .46*
Daytime sleepiness − .60** − .73** − .40* − .44*
Drowsy during the day − .49* − .83** − .36* − .38*
Co-sleepingc − .29 − .22 − .35* − .20
  1. aDue to the majority of items on the sleep anxiety subscale requiring verbal ability, this subscale score was not calculated for children with AS
  2. bMissing data. Children with ASD: sleep anxiety, bedtime resistance, sleep-disordered breathing and parasomnias (n = 29). Children with SMS: bedtime resistance (n = 25), sleep-disordered breathing and parasomnias (n = 24). TD children: night waking (n = 43), sleep-disordered breathing (n = 44), sleep onset latency (n = 45), parasomnias (n = 46)
  3. cCo-sleeping item was not administered to 40 children with AS, n = 30 for this item
  4. *r ≥ .2—small effect, **r ≥ .5—medium effect (Cohen, [58]), non-significant effect size, p > .01