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Table 4 Median (interquartile range) sleep subscale scores, proportions of children with severe sleep problems and statistical comparisons

From: A cross-syndrome cohort comparison of sleep disturbance in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome, Angelman syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and tuberous sclerosis complex

  ASa SMS TSC ASD TD Kruskal-Wallis comparison Between group comparison corrected to p < .01
df χ 2 P
Sleep anxiety 11.50 (8.75–13.00) 9.00 (7.25–13.00) 13.00 (9.00–14.50) 10.00 (8.00–13.00) 3 2.90 .408
Bedtime resistance 10.00 (7.00–13.00) 14.00 (9.00–16.00) 11.00 (10.0–16.75) 15.00 (9.00–18.00) 11.00 (8.00–14.00) 4 12.85 .012 ASD > AS
Sleep onset latency 2.00 (2.00–3.00) 2.00 (1.00–2.00) 2.50 (2.00–3.00) 3.00 (3.00–5.00) 2.00 (1.00–3.00) 4 36.16 < .001 ASD > SMS, AS, TSC, TD
Night waking 7.00 (5.00–8.00) 7.00 (7.00–8.00) 6.00 (3.25–8.00) 7.00 (4.00–9.00) 3.00 (2.00–5.00) 4 51.72 < .001 ASD, SMS, AS, TSC > TD
Sleep-disordered breathing 9.00 (6.00–11.00) 11.50 (9.00–16.00) 5.00 (5.00–10.75) 7.00 (5.00–11.00) 5.00 (5.00–8.00) 4 40.32 < .001 SMS > ASD, AS, TSC, TD AS > TD
Parasomnia 19.00 (15.00–23.00) 21.50 (18.50–26.75) 19.50 (15.00–23.25) 22.00 (16.00–27.50) 14.50 (11.75–18.00) 4 40.23 < .001 SMS, AS, ASD, TSC > TD
Daytime sleepiness 6.00 (4.00–7.00) 6.00 (6.00–9.00) 6.00 (2.00–6.00) 6.00 (2.00–6.25) 2.00 (2.00–3.00) 4 54.89 < .001 SMS > ASD, TSC, TD AS, ASD, TSC > TD
Drowsy during the day 2.00 (1.00–3.00)b 4.50 (3.00–5.00) 1.00 (1.00–2.75) 1.00 (1.00–3.00) 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 4 62.80 < .001 SMS > AS, ASD, TSC, TD AS, ASD, TSC > TD
Co-sleeping 1.5 (1.00–5.00) 1.00 (1.00–4.50) 2.5 (1.00–5.00) 1.00 (1.00–5.00) 1.00 (1.00–2.00) 4 10.58 .032 TSC > TD
Severe night waking (%) 45.70 80.80 45.0 43.30 4.30 4 44.37 < .001 SMS > AS, ASD, TD TSC, AS, ASD > TD
Severe early morning waking (%) 18.60 73.10 15.0 23.30 2.10 4 50.95 < .001 SMS > TSC, AS, ASD, TD AS, ASD > TD
Severe settling (%) 4.30 7.70 15.0 30.0 4.30 4 18.56 .001 ASD > AS, TD
  1. aThere were no significant differences on any of the MSPSQ subscales between the AS genetic subtypes
  2. bCo-sleeping item was not administered to 40 children with AS, n = 30 for this item