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Table 2 Participant characteristics of Infant Brain Imaging Study sample

From: Language delay aggregates in toddler siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder

  LR-noASD (n = 115) HR-noASD (n = 235) Statistics
Sex (n male) 69 (60%) 133 (56.6%) χ2(1) = .37, p = .55
Age (months) 24.61 (.79) 24.69 (.76) t(1) =  −.93, p = .35
Income [n < 75 K (%)] 44 (40.4%) 94 (42.2%) χ2(1) = .096, p = .76
Race [n (% Caucasian)] 100 (87.0%) 205 (87.2%) χ2(1) = .005, p = .94
Maternal education [n (% college degree or above)] 99 (86.1%) 160 (68.1%) χ2(1) = 13.01, p < .001
MSEL nonverbal developmental composite 56.83 (8.54) 51.87 (8.45) t(348) = 5.14, p < .001
MSEL receptive language score (T-score) 56.98 (8.71) 51.79 (10.43) t(348) = 4.61, p < .001
MSEL expressive language score (T-score) 53.23 (10.16) 49.13 (11.29) t(348) = 3.30, p = .001
Language delay (receptive or expressive) [n (%)] 5 (4.3%) 32 (13.6%) χ2(1) = 7.02, p = .008
ADOS social affect score 2.11 (2.36) 2.34 (2.49) t(344) =  −.83, p = .41
  1. The statistics column shows results of testing for differences in low-risk siblings without autism spectrum disorder (LR-noASD) and high-risk siblings without ASD (HR-noASD siblings). Significant differences are bolded. MSEL Mullen Scales of Early Learning, ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. The mean T-score for the MSEL in the general population is 50, with a standard deviation of 10. Language delay is defined as MSEL receptive or expressive scores ≤ 1.5 standard deviations below the mean