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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing (TD) control groups overall and within sex

From: ADHD-related sex differences in fronto-subcortical intrinsic functional connectivity and associations with delay discounting

  TD ADHD Group comparisons
Girls
(n = 21)
Boys
(n = 54)
All
(n = 75)
Girls
(n = 20)
Boys
(n = 52)
All
(n = 72)
Girls TD vs. ADHD Boys TD vs. ADHD All TD vs. ADHD ADHD boys vs. girls
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD p values
Age (years) 10.3 1.1 10.3 1.2 10.3 1.2 9.8 1.1 10.2 1.4 10.1 1.3 .166 .575 .250 .319
% Male n/a n/a 72% n/a n/a 72% n/a n/a .976 n/a
% Minority 38% 48% 45% 35% 33% 33% .837 .105 .137 .852
SES 53.9 9.4 52.8 10.0 53.1 9.8 54.1 9.4 52.8 9.9 53.1 9.7 .959 .976 .966 .638
Handedness 0.71 0.44 0.61 0.57 0.64 0.54 0.64 0.51 0.60 0.58 0.61 0.56 .684 .906 .774 .771
WISCa FSIQ 112.4 11.6 116.5 13.0 115.4 12.7 111.1 10.6 108.0 11.6 108.9 11.4 .704 .001 .001 .314
WISC GAI 112.8 13.0 118.6 13.9 117.0 13.8 113.6 11.2 112.0 13.7 112.4 13.0 .846 .017 .044 .651
CPRS IA T 47.2 6.1 44.1 5.7 45.0 6.0 82.6 9.1 71.0 8.4 74.3 10.0 < .001 < .001 < .001 < .001
CPRS HI T 48.5 7.5 46.3 5.5 46.9 6.2 75.6 16.3 68.9 14.4 70.8 15.2 < .001 < .001 < .001 .096
ADHD-RS IA 3.2 2.8 3.4 3.0 3.3 2.9 20.2 4.9 18.3 4.4 18.8 4.6 < .001 < .001 < .001 .123
ADHD-RS HI 2.9 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.5 2.6 14.4 8.5 12.4 6.6 12.9 7.2 < .001 < .001 < .001 .298
ADHD Presentation
CO:IA (count)
n/a n/a n/a 16:4 38:14 54:18 n/a n/a n/a .543
% Stim Med 0 0 0 59% 60% 57% n/a n/a n/a .460
% ODD 0 0 0 50% 31% 36% n/a n/a n/a .128
  1. % Minority percentage of subjects with a self-reported race of African American, Asian, Hispanic, or Biracial, SES Hollingshead Four-Factor Index of Socioeconomic Status, WISC Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, FSIQ Full-scale IQ, GAI General Ability Index, CPRS IA T Conners Parent Rating Scales DSM Inattention Scale T-score, CPRS HI T Conners Parent Rating Scales DSM Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Scale T-score, ADHD-RS HI ADHD Rating Scale Hyperactivity/Impulsivity raw score, ADHD-RS IA ADHD Rating Scale Inattention raw score, CO combined presentation, IA predominantly inattentive presentation, % Stim Med percentage of subjects taking stimulant medication at the time of the study (all subjects discontinued medication the day prior to and day of study participation), % ODD percentage of subjects diagnosed with comorbid Oppositional Defiant Disorder
  2. a121 participants were administered the WISC-IV, 26 participants were administered the WISC-V