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Table 2 Intrinsic functional connectivity of fronto-subcortical pairs for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing (TD) controls

From: ADHD-related sex differences in fronto-subcortical intrinsic functional connectivity and associations with delay discounting

  TD ADHD Group differences
Girls
(n = 21)
Boys
(n = 54)
All
(n = 75)
Girls
(n = 20)
Boys
(n = 52)
All
(n = 72)
Dx Dx × Sex All Girls Boys
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD p p d d d
F1-S1 0.26 0.15 0.25 0.15 0.25 0.16 0.36 0.15 0.29 0.15 0.32 0.17 .012a .291 0.42a 0.66b 0.27
F2-S1 0.65 0.15 0.68 0.15 0.66 0.16 0.74 0.15 0.68 0.14 0.71 0.16 .092 .079 0.28 0.64b 0.01
F3-S1 − 0.45 0.16 − 0.52 0.16 − 0.49 0.18 − 0.57 0.16 − 0.53 0.16 − 0.55 0.18 .041b .048b 0.33b 0.74b 0.01
F1-S2 − 0.31 0.16 − 0.28 0.15 − 0.29 0.17 − 0.16 0.15 − 0.25 0.15 − 0.20 0.17 .002a .042b 0.51a 0.94a 0.20
F2-S2 0.02 0.15 0.06 0.15 0.04 0.16 0.09 0.15 0.06 0.14 0.07 0.16 .183 .172 0.22 0.49 0.01
F3-S2 − 0.39 0.15 − 0.41 0.15 − 0.40 0.16 − 0.42 0.15 − 0.39 0.15 − 0.41 0.16 .805 .310 0.04 0.23 0.14
  1. Estimated marginal mean (SD) functional connectivity values for the ADHD and TD groups. F1 frontal component 1 (ventromedial PFC), F2 frontal component 2 (medial PFC/anterior cingulate cortex), F3 frontal component 3 (anterior dorsolateral PFC), S1 subcortical component 1 (striatum), S2 subcortical component 2 (amygdala/hippocampus). Cohen’s d is reported as an estimate of effect size. Uncorrected p values are reported. aSignificant effect after FDR correction applied for six tests; bSignificant effect without FDR correction