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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Fig. 4

From: Impaired neurodevelopmental pathways in autism spectrum disorder: a review of signaling mechanisms and crosstalk

Fig. 4

ASD causal genes affecting BMP signaling and potential crosstalk with other signaling pathways. ASD causal genes-encoded proteins, such as NLGN3/4, FMR1, DLX, and UBE3A, interact with BMP signaling pathway which may further affect WNT signaling. It should be noted that overexpression of UBE3A affects WNT and RA signaling pathways. However, its loss-of-function affects BMP signaling. Note: plus sign indicates upregulation; minus sign indicates downregulation

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