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Table 2 Summary of studies using adaptive ability tests in adults with DS. NR indicates “not reported.” IQ test results not shown (see Table 1)

From: Assessing general cognitive and adaptive abilities in adults with Down syndrome: a systematic review

Study AB scale Score type(s) provided Participants Participant ages Raw scores Standardised scores Floor effects
Gilmore et al., [28] Vineland ABS 2nd Edition (VABS-II) Adaptive Behavior Composite score 21 24.83 (1.20) NR 51.86 (15.29) NR
Hartley et al. [14]* Vineland ABS 2nd Edition (VABS-II) Adaptive Behavior Composite score 58 37.6 (6.8; ≥ 30) NR 183.67 (47.65) NR
Tomaszewski et al., [15] Vineland ABS 2nd Edition (VABS-II) Adaptive Behavior Composite score and three individual subscale scores 31 25.9 (5.92) NR 52.6 (15.8) (Adaptive Behavior Composite);
45.7 (22.2) (Communication Standard Score);
55.5 (14.4) (Daily Living Skills Standard Score);
64.6 (13.7) (Socialisation Standard Score)
NR
Dressler et al. [22] Vineland ABS (Italian version) Age equivalent scores 49 28.8 (8.4; 19–52) NR Total, 7.26 (3.35; 3.06–10.0);
Communication sub-domain, 7.18 (3.51);
Daily living skills sub-domain, 7.36 (2.62);
Socialisation sub-domain, 7.62 (4.32)
NR
Ghezzo et al. [8] Vineland ABS   36 adults with DS (of a larger sample of 67 participants which included children) 18–29 years.: n = 24, 22.34 (3.40)
30–39 years.: n = 17, 34.27 (3.04)
≥ 40: years. n = 18, 49.34 (6.91)
  The following scales (including subscales) for each of the three adult age groups: Communication, Daily living skills, Socialisation, Motor skills. See paper for details.  
Kishnani et al., [29]** Vineland ABS “Composite Supplemental Norm Score” 53 (donepezil group); 59 (placebo group) 24.2 (5.1; 18–36) (donepezil group);
26.0 (5.5; 18–38) (placebo group)
NR 57.4 (10–99) (donepezil group at baseline);
64.1 (30–99) (placebo group at baseline)
NR
Witts and Elders [30] Vineland ABS Age equivalent scores 33 36 (8.9; 22–53) NR 8.5 (3.7; 3.67–18.5) NR
Kay et al. [19] ABS Raw scores 85 38.2 157.5 (59.8; 34–270)
Median, 165
NR NR
de Sola et al. [17] ABAS-II Raw scores 86 23.3 (4.3; 16–34) Total, 635.9 (90.9; 220–627);
Communication sub-domain, 80.3 (12.7);
Community Use sub-domain, 61.5 (13.2);
Functional Academics sub-domain, 67.4 (17.9);
Home Living sub-domain, 64.3 (12.1);
Health and Safety sub-domain, 57.8 (9.5);
Leisure sub-domain, 68.2 (11.5);
Self-care sub-domain, 87.5 (8.3);
Self-direction sub-domain, 73.5 (14.7);
Social Skills sub-domain, 75.3 (14.7)
NR No subscales showed floor effects
Strydom et al. [23] ABAS Raw scores 32 32.59 (6.78; 18–45) 377 (139.53; 98–589) NR NR
Startin et al. [16] Short-ABS Raw scores 130 aged 36+ years without dementia 47.77 (7.01; 36–71) Total, 71.89 (23.39; 14–111);
SABS P, 26.74 (6.07; 0–33);
SABS C, 24.57 (12.06; 0–47);
SABS PS, 20.78 (6.97; 3–32)
NR Total, 0%;
SABS P, 0.9%;
SABS C, 0.9%;
SABS PS, 0%
51 aged 36+ years with dementia 54.20 (6.95; 38–67) Total, 42.23 (24.51; 3–92);
SABS P, 17.02 (9.70; 0–33);
SABS C, 10.00 (15.00; 0–31);
SABS PS, 13.00 (11.00; 1–28)
NR Total, 0%;
SABS P, 2.3%;
SABS C, 2.3%;
SABS PS, 0%
124 aged 16–35 years 25.24 (5.53; 16–35) Total, 79.03 (19.73; 28–112);
SABS P, 28.91 (4.55; 14–33);
SABS C, 27.74 (10.36; 4–47);
SABS PS, 22.53 (6.49; 7–32)
NR Total, 0%;
SABS P, 0%;
SABS C, 0%;
SABS PS, 0%
  1. *Only T1 data used in this review
  2. **Only baseline data used in this review
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