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Table 4 Summary of intelligence and adaptive ability tests used by identified studies in adults with DS

From: Assessing general cognitive and adaptive abilities in adults with Down syndrome: a systematic review

  Test name Authors Domains measured
Intelligence tests The British Picture Vocabulary Scale (2nd edition); BPVS-II Dunn et al. [41] Verbal IQ (receptive language)
The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test; KBIT Kaufman and Kaufman [42] Verbal and non-verbal IQ
The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (2nd edition); KBIT-2 Kaufman and Kaufman [43] Verbal and non-verbal IQ
The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised; Leiter-R Roid and Miller [44] Non-verbal IQ
The Matrix Analogies Test-Expanded Form; MAT Naglieri [45] Non-verbal IQ
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd edition); PPVT-III Dunn and Dunn [46] Verbal IQ (receptive language)
The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4th edition); PPVT-IV Dunn and Dunn [47] Verbal IQ (receptive language)
The Revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; PPVT-R Dunn and Dunn [48] Verbal IQ (receptive language)
The Prudhoe Cognitive Function Test; PCFT Kay et al. [19] General cognitive functioning
Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices; RCPM Raven [49] Non-verbal IQ (abstract reasoning)
Stanford Binet 5th edition; SB-5 Roid [50] Verbal and performance IQ
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd edition); WAIS-III Wechsler [51] Verbal and performance IQ
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised; WAIS-R Wechsler [52] Verbal and performance IQ
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised; WISC-R Wechsler [53] Verbal and performance IQ
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised; WPPSI-R Wechsler [54] Verbal and performance IQ
The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities; WJTCA-R Woodcock [55] General cognitive functioning
Adaptive ability tests Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System; ABAS Harrison and Oakland [33] Adaptive abilities (main domains include: Conceptual, Social and Practical)
Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System (2nd edition); ABAS-II Harrison and Oakland [34] Adaptive abilities (main domains include: Conceptual, Social and Practical)
Short Adaptive Behaviour Scale; SABS Hatton et al. [36] Adaptive abilities (main domains include: Personal Self-Sufficiency, Community Self-Sufficiency, Personal-Social Responsibility)
Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale; VABS Sparrow et al. [31]; Italian version Balboni and Pedrabissi [32] Adaptive abilities (main domains include: Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialisation, Motor Skills)
Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale 2nd Edition; VABS-II Sparrow et al. [56] Adaptive abilities (main domains include: Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialisation, Motor Skills)
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