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Table 3 Demographic characteristics and statistical analyses for participant groups: PTHS and matched AS and CdLS

From: Behavioural and psychological characteristics in Pitt-Hopkins syndrome: a comparison with Angelman and Cornelia de Lange syndromes

Demographic characteristic PTHS, n = 24 AS, n = 24 CdLS, n = 24 Group comparison: chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U
Comparison χ2/U p value
Self-help scorea Mean (SD) 4.04 (.62) 4.04 (.62) 4 (.51) PTHS ≈ AS 288 1.00
Median (IQR) 4 (0) 4 (0) 4 (0) PTHS ≈ CdLS 287 .967
Range 3–6 3–6 3–5
Age Mean (SD) 11.2 (7.8) 10.9 (7.3) 11.3 (7.7) PTHS ≈ AS 282 .901
Median (IQR) 8.5 (11) 8.5 (11) 9 (11) PTHS ≈ CdLS 285 .951
Range 1–30 2–27 1–30
Verbal (able to speak more than 30 signs/words) (%) 2 (8.3) 0 (0) 1 (4.2) PTHS ≈ AS 2.09 .490b
PTHS ≈ CdLS .356 1.00b
Mobile (able to walk unaided) (%) 11 (45.8) 11 (45.8) 16 (66.7) PTHS ≈ AS .000 1.00
PTHS ≈ CdLS 2.12 .146
% male 50 47.8 41.7 PTHS ≈ AS .020 .880
PTHS ≈ CdLS .336 .560
Visiona (categorised as “normal vision”) 9 (37.5) 20 (87) 14 (60.9) PTHS < AS 12.16 < .001
PTHS ≈ CdLS 2.57 .109
Hearinga (categorised as “normal hearing”) 23 (95.8) 24 (100) 8 (34.8) PTHS ≈ AS 1.02 1.00b
PTHS > CdLS 19.50 < .001
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. aDerived from the Wessex Scale [52]
  3. bFishers exact p value reported as 50% had an expected count < 5