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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Are there shared neural correlates between dyslexia and ADHD? A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies

Study (reference) Total N Age group analysis Clinical group Control group Included in brain volume corrected analysis Comorbidity with dyslexia or ADHD noted in exclusion criteria
N % male Mean age (years) N % male Mean age (years)
ADHD
 Ahrendts et al. [64] 62 Adult 31 65 31.2 31 65 31.5 Yes No learning disability
 Bonath et al. [65] 36 - 18 100 13.6 18 100 14.1 Yes -
 Bralten et al. [66] 503 - 307 68 17.1 196 51 16.7 No No learning disability
 Brieber et al. [67] 30 - 15 100 13.1 15 100 13.3 Yes -
 Carmona et al. [68] 50 Child 25 84 10.8 25 84 11.2 Yes -
 He et al. [69] 72 Child 37 100 9.9 35 100 10.7 Yes -
 Iannaccone et al. [70] 40 - 20 61 14.5 20 50 14.8 Yes -
 Johnston et al. [71] 68 - 34 100 12.5 34 100 13.2 No -
 Kappel et al. (adults) [72] 36 Adult 16 94 23.5 20 100 23.7 No -
 Kappel et al. (children) [72] 24 Child 14 71 9.8 10 80 11.0 No -
 Kaya et al. [73] 37 Child 19 71 10.3 18 67 10.2 No -
 Kobel et al. [74] 26 Child 14 100 10.4 12 100 10.9 Yes -
 Kumar et al. [75] 36 Child 18 100 9.6 18 100 9.7 Yes No learning disability
 Lim et al. [76] 58 - 29 100 13.8 29 100 14.4 No No dyslexia
 McAlonan et al. [77] 59 Child 28 100 9.9 31 100 9.6 Yes -
 Montes et al. [78] 40 Adult 20 50 29.0 20 50 27.6 No -
 Moreno-Alcazar et al. [79] 88 Adult 44 66 31.6 44 66 32.6 No -
 Overmeyer et al. [80] 34 Child 18 83 10.4 16 94 10.3 Yes No learning disability
 Roman-Urrestarazu et al. [81] 83 Adult 49 76 22.2 34 50 22.9 No -
 Sasayama et al. [82] 35 Child 18 72 10.6 17 71 10.0 Yes No learning disability
 Van Wingen et al. [83] 29 Adult 14 100 32.0 15 100 37.0 Yes -
 Villemonteix et al. (med naïve group) [84] 57 Child 33 55 10.3 24 50 10.0 No -
 Villemonteix et al. (med group) [84] 44 Child 20 80 10.4 24 50 10.0 No -
 Yang et al. [85] 114 Child 57 61 11.1 57 60 11.7 Yes -
 Totals or sample size-weighted averages 1661   898 76 16.5 763 71 16.6   
Dyslexia
 Brambati et al. [86] 21 - 10 50 31.6 11 45 27.4 Yes No psychiatric
 Brown et al. [87] 30 Adult 16 100 24.0 14 100 matched to clinical grp No No ADHD
 Eckert et al. [88] 26 Child 13 100 11.4 13 100 11.3 Yes No psychiatric
 Evans et al. (male adults) [89] 28 Adult 14 100 42.9 14 100 41.1 Yes No severe psychiatric
 Evans et al. (female adults) [89] 26 Adult 13 0 34.0 13 0 27.9 Yes No severe psychiatric
 Evans et al. (male children) [89] 30 Child 15 100 9.6 15 100 8.3 Yes No severe psychiatric
 Evans et al. (female children) [89] 34 Child 17 0 10.1 17 0 9.1 Yes No severe psychiatric
 Hoeft et al. [90] 38 - 19 53 14.4 19 53 14.4 Yes No psychiatric
 Jednoróg et al. [91] 236 Child 130 57 10.3 106 48 10.2 Yes No ADHD
 Kronbichler et al. [92] 28 - 13 100 15.9 15 100 15.5 Yes No psychiatric
 Liu et al. [93] 36 Child 18 72 11.8 18 83 11.8 Yes No ADHD
 Silani et al. [94] 64 Adult 32 100 24.4 32 100 26.3 No -
 Siok et al. [95] 32 Child 16 50 11.0 16 81 11.0 Yes No ADHD
 Steinbrink et al. [96] 16 Adult 8 75 20.1 8 75 23.7 Yes No psychiatric
 Tamboer et al. [97] 94 Adult 37 16 20.6 57 12 20.3 Yes No ADHD
 Vinckenbosch et al. [98] 23 Adult 13 100 Adults 10 100 Adults Yes No ADHD
 Xia et al. [99] 48 Child 24 58 12.5 24 50 12.5 No No psychiatric
 Yang et al. [100] 23 Child 9 33 12.6 14 43 12.3 Yes No ADHD
 Totals or Sample size-weighted averages 833   417 61 16.4 416 57 16.5