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Table 1 Mouse models of TSC targeting glia

From: The role of glia in epilepsy, intellectual disability, and other neurodevelopmental disorders in tuberous sclerosis complex

  Cognitive
Mouse ModelGlial pathologyEpilepsyDeficitsOther/commentReferences
Astrocytes
 Gfap-Tsc1 CKO miceAstrogliosis/proliferation Increased astrocyte size
Impaired glutamate transport, potassium channels, and gap junctions.
++Not specific for astrocytes, some neuronal involvement[28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36]
 Gfap-Tsc2 CKO miceAstrogliosis/proliferation Increased astrocyte size
Impaired glutamate transport
+n/aNot specific for astrocytes, some neuronal involvement[37]
 Gfap2-Tsc1 CKO miceAstrogliosis/proliferation
Decreased myelination
+n/aNot specific for astrocytes, some neuronal involvement[38]
 Gfap2-Tsc2 CKO miceAstrogliosis/proliferation
Decreased myelination
+n/aNot specific for astrocytes, some neuronal involvement[39, 40]
 Inducible GFAP-Tsc1 CKO miceAstrogliosis/proliferation+/−n/aPostnatal Tsc1 inactivation more specific for astrocytes[41]
Microglia
 Cx3cr1-Tsc1 CKO miceMicroglia activation
Increased microglia size and number.
+n/aControversial as to specificity for microglia[42, 43]
 Inducible Cxcr1-Tsc1 CKO miceMicroglia activation
Increased microglia size and number
+/−n/aPostnatal Tsc1 inactivation more specific for microglia[42, 43]
Oligodendrocytes
 Olig2-Tsc2 CKO miceHypomyelination
Decreased oligodendrocyte number
 [44]
  1. n/a not reported