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Table 1 Existing studies evaluating choline in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

From: Four-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of choline for neurodevelopment in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

Study Supplementation type and dose Age range and duration N Outcome
Wozniak et al. 2013 [29] Choline bitartrate; 513 mg choline vs. placebo per day 2 to 5 years old; 9-month duration 10 choline; 9 placebo Feasibility and tolerability: dose taken on 87% of days with no difference between choline and placebo; fishy odor occurred in 56% (choline) vs. 0% (placebo)
Wozniak et al. 2015* [30] Choline bitartrate; 513 mg choline vs. placebo per day 2 to 5 years old; 9-month duration 31 choline; 20 placebo Efficacy: no choline effect for global cognition; Significant choline effect for delayed sequential memory in 2–3-year-olds compared to 4–5-year-olds
Kable et al. 2015 [31] 750 mg choline + multi-vitamin vs. multi-vitamin vs. standard care per day Prenatal; from first prenatal clinic visit through delivery 37 choline; 50 multi-vitamin; 87 multi-vitamin + treatment; 81 standard care Efficacy: significant choline effect for cardiac orienting response as a measure of visual attention/memory encoding
Coles et al. 2015 [32] 750 mg choline+multi-vitamin vs. multi-vitamin vs. standard care per day Prenatal; from first prenatal clinic visit through delivery 95 choline + multi-vitamin; 96 multi-vitamin; 176 standard care Efficacy: no choline effect for global measure of infant cognition and motor skill.
Nguyen et al. 2016 [33] Glycerophospho-choline; 625 mg choline per day 5 to 10 years old; 6-week duration 29 choline; 26 placebo Efficacy: no significant choline effect for measures of paired-associate learning, fluency, working memory, attention, or fine motor speed
Jacobson et al. 2018 [34] Choline bitartrate; 2000 mg choline vs. placebo per day Prenatal; varied duration, < 23 weeks delivery 34 choline; 35 placebo Feasibility and tolerability: minimal side effects consisting of increased nausea/dyspepsia in the choline group vs. placebo.
Jacobson et al. 2018 [34] Choline bitartrate; 2000 mg choline vs. placebo per day Prenatal; varied duration, < 23 weeks delivery 34 choline; 35 placebo Efficacy: significant choline effect for eye-blink conditioning and visual recognition memory
Sarkar et al. 2019 [35] Choline bitartrate; 500 mg choline vs. placebo per day 2.6 to 5 years; 9-month duration Varies Decreased methylation of hPER2 and hPOMC genes and increased expression of hPER2 and hPOMC genes.
  1. *Notes: 19 participants from Wozniak et al. 2013 [29] were included in Wozniak et al. 2015 [30]
  2. hPER2 human period2 gene, hPOMC human pro-opiomelanocortin