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Table 2 Characteristics of participants

From: Four-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of choline for neurodevelopment in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

N(%) or mean (SD) Placebo
(n = 16)
Choline
(n = 15)
Statistical test
Age at enrollment (years) 3.95 (0.75) 3.81 (0.83) t (29) = 0.51 p = 0.62
Age at follow-up (years) 8.59(0.99) 8.57 (1.01) t (29) = 0.04 p = 0.97
Years since study completion 3.94 (0.60) 4.03 (0.48) t (29) = 0.44 p = 0.67
Gender
 Male 7 (43.8%) 8 (53.3%) χ2 (1) = 0.29 p = 0.60
 Female 9 (56.2%) 7 (46.7%)
Racial categories
 White 5 (31.3%) 8 (53.3%) χ2 (5) = 0.40 p = 0.56
 Black or African American 5 (31.3%) 2 (13.3%)  
 American Indian/Alaska Native 3 (18.8%) 1 (6.7%)  
 Asian 1 (6.3%) 1 (6.7%)  
 More than one race 2 (12.5%) 2 (13.3%)  
 Not reported 0 (0%) 1 (6.7%)  
Ethnic category
 Hispanic or Latino 1 (6.3%) 1 (6.7%) χ2 (2) = 0.97 p = 0.62
 Not Hispanic or Latino 14 (87.5%) 14 (93.3%)  
 Unknown 1 (3.2%) 0 (0.0%)  
Dysmorphic facial features
 Lip (score 4 or 5) 11 (68.8%) 7 (50.0%) χ2 (1) = 1.09 p = 0.30
 Philtrum (score 4 or 5) 13 (81.3%) 7 (50.0%) χ2 (1) = 3.28 p = 0.07
 Palpebral fissure (≤ 10th percentile) 11 (68.8%) 11 (78.6%) χ2 (1) = 0.37 p = 0.54
  ≥ 2 facial features present 11 (68.8%) 7 (46.7%) χ2 (1) = 1.55 p = 0.21
Growth deficiency (≤ 10th percentile)
 Height 4 (25%) 4 (13.3%) χ2 (1) = 0.68 p = 0.41
 Weight 2 (12.5%) 4 (26.7%) χ2 (1) = 1.00 p = 0.32
Deficient brain growth (≤ 10th percentile)
 Occipital-frontal circumference (OFC) 6 (37.5%) 5 (33.3%) χ2 (1) = 0.06 p = 0.81
Alcohol exposure
 Alcohol confirmed 14 (87.5%) 12 (80.0%) χ2 (1) = 0.32 p = 0.57
 Alcohol suspected 2 (12.5%) 3 (20.0%)  
Drug exposure
 Other drug exposure suspected 8 (50.0%) 9 (60.0%) χ2 (1) = 0.31 p = 0.58
IOM diagnostic category
 FAS 3 (18.8%) 1 (6.7%) χ2 (2) = 1.33 p = 0.52
 Partial FAS 7 (43.8%) 6 (40.0%)  
 ARND 6 (37.5%) 8 (53.3%)  
 Baseline Mullen Early Learning Composite 77.9 (22.0) 84.5 (13.4) t (29)= − 0.98 p = 0.34