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Table 1 Detailed characterization of behavioural measures at the 10- and 24-month assessments for EL-ASD, EL-ADHD, EL-ASD+ADHD and TL participants who contributed to the EEG analyses

From: Behavioural and neural markers of tactile sensory processing in infants at elevated likelihood of autism spectrum disorder and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

  EL-ASD EL-ADHD EL-ASD+ADHD TL p values
10-month visit
 Age in days 318.65 (13.42) 326.55 (29.76) 316.56 (14.05) 323.22 (16.77) .378 (ns)
 MSEL ELC 86.47 (14.39) 86.05 (17.09) 80.78 (15.82) 91.11 (9.65) .359 (ns)
 MSEL GM 37.67 (8.51) 39.75 (9.92) 33.56 (9.81) 33.11 (9.87) .102 (ns)
 MSEL FM 50.14 (11.22) 53.65 (15.26) 46.55 (13.65) 50.78 (8.09) .499 (ns)
 MSEL VR 48.56 (9.09) 47.10 (10.46) 48.00 (8.29) 50.61 (5.75) .669 (ns)
 MSEL RL 36.30 (10.03) 34.65 (10.37) 34.11 (10.87) 41.05 (8.05) .174 (ns)
 MSEL EL 36.35 (13.05) 34.95 (13.22) 30.22 (12.97) 39.11 (9.86) .367 (ns)
N (% boys) 43 (43.2) 20 (60) 9 (55.6) 18 (50)  
 ITSP Tactile Seeking 2.40 (0.99)a 1.90 (0.54) 2.33 (0.97) 1.81 (0.39) .003*
24-month visit
 Age in days 777.00 (19.66) 771.12 (40.38) 755.57 (19.66) 764.40 (43.63) .610 (ns)
 MSEL ELC 101.87 (20.87)a 104.76 (21.61) 92.86 (18.08)a 120.00 (15.53) .011*
 MSEL GM N/A N/A N/A N/A  
 MSEL FM 50.95 (10.39)a 50.82 (11.90) 49.43 (12.15) 61.20 (10.72) .015*
 MSEL VR 50.20 (13.27)a 55.53 (11.86) 43.86 (8.80)a 63.67 (8.37) .001**
 MSEL RL 51.41 (14.11) 50.34 (13.44) 47.43 (9.13) 57.87 (7.43) .217 (ns)
 MSEL EL 49.47 (15.72) 52.23 (15.21) 44.28 (11.46) 58.00 (12.79) .159 (ns)
N (% boys) 38 (42.1) 17 (58.8) 7 (57.1) 15 (40)  
 ADOS-2 CSS 2.97 (2.26)a 2.65 (1.97) 3.14 (2.03)a 1.40 (0.63) .040*
 ECBQ inhibitory control 3.74 (1.29) 3.84 (0.97) 3.22 (1.61) 4.31 (0.92) .250 (ns)
 ECBQ activity 4.54 (0.84) 4.88 (1.04) 5.11 (0.74) 4.62 (0.72) .325 (ns)
 Q-CHAT 24.37 (12.17) 28.00 (10.96) 31.08 (15.19) 21.05 (3.82) .202 (ns)
  1. *p < .05
  2. ** p ≤ .001
  3. aSignificant differences with the TL group
  4. M (SD) reported for age in days, MSEL ELC (Mullen Scales for Early Learning Early Composite Score), MSEL GM (Mullen Scales for Early Learning Gross Motor Score), MSEL FM (Mullen Scales for Early Learning Fine Motor Score), MSEL VR (Mullen Scales for Early Learning Visual reception Score), MSEL RL (Mullen Scales for Early Learning Receptive Language Score), MSEL EL (Mullen Scales for Early Learning Expressive Language), ITSP Tactile Seeking (tactile sensory seeking average score of the Infant-Toddler Sensory Profile), ADOS-2 CSS (ADOS-2 Calibrated Severity Scores), ECBQ inhibitory control (inhibitory control subscale of the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire), ECBQ activity (activity subscale of the Early Childhood Behaviour Questionnaire), Q-CHAT (Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers)