Skip to main content

Table 6 Multiple regression analyses predicting concurrent language and behavior as a function of nonverbal reasoning and nighttime sleep duration

From: Sleep characteristics and problems of 2-year-olds with Williams syndrome: relations with language and behavior

Predictor B t p -value 95% CI for B Semi-partial r Cohen’s f2
1. CDI-EV SS
 Constant 99.50 116.91 < .001 [97.81, 101.19]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T 0.70 8.27 < .001* [0.53, 0.87] .64 0.74
 Nighttime sleep duration (hr) 2.30 2.92 .004* [0.74, 3.86] .23 0.09
R2 = .44, adjusted R2 = .43, F (2, 93) = 36.75, p < .001
2. MSEL Expressive Language T
 Constant 32.19 41.49 < .001 [30.65, 33.74]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T 0.64 8.33 < .001* [0.49, 0.80] .65 0.75
 Nighttime sleep duration (hr) 2.02 2.82 .006* [0.60, 3.45] .22 0.08
R2 = .44, adjusted R2 = .43, F (2, 93) = 37.00, p < .001
3. MSEL Receptive Language T
 Constant 31.92 38.00 < .001 [30.25, 33.59]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T 0.81 9.64 < .001* [0.64, 0.97] .70 1.00
 Nighttime sleep duration (hr) 2.31 2.97 .004* [0.77, 3.85] .22 0.09
R2 = .51, adjusted R2 = .50, F (2, 93) = 48.88, p < .001
4. CBCL Internalizing Problems T
 Constant 50.67 67.45 < .001 [49.18, 52.16]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T − 0.31 − 4.11 < .001* [− 0.46, − 0.16] − .38 0.18
 Nighttime sleep duration (hr) − 1.84 − 2.65 .010* [− 3.22, − 0.46] − .25 0.08
R2 = .19, adjusted R2 = .18, F (2, 93) = 11.14, p < .001
5. CBCL Externalizing Problems T
 Constant 49.65 49.56 < .001 [47.66, 51.64]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T − 0.12 − 1.25 .216 [− 0.32, 0.07] − .13 0.02
 Nighttime sleep duration (hr) − 0.28 − 0.30 .763 [− 2.12, 1.56] − .03 < 0.01
R2 = .02, adjusted R2 = − .004, F (2, 93) = .80, p = .454
  1. N = 96. CI confidence interval, CDI-EV SS MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences expressive vocabulary standard score, MSEL Mullen Scales of Early Learning, hr hours, CBCL Child Behavior Checklist
  2. *Effect remains statistically significant after Holm-Bonferroni correction