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Table 7 Multiple regression analyses predicting concurrent language and behavior as a function of nonverbal reasoning and sleepiness

From: Sleep characteristics and problems of 2-year-olds with Williams syndrome: relations with language and behavior

Predictor B t p -value 95% CI for B Semi-partial r Cohen’s f2
1. CDI-EV SS
 Constant 99.84 94.96 < .001 [97.74, 101.93]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T 0.66 5.96 < .001* [0.44, 0.88] .59 0.53
 Sleepiness score 0.28 0.24 .809 [− 2.03, 2.59] .02 − 0.06
R2 = .35, adjusted R2 = .33, F (2, 67) = 18.16, p < .001
2. MSEL Expressive Language T
 Constant 32.00 36.37 < .001 [30.25, 33.76]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T 0.65 7.08 < .001* [0.47, 0.84] .65 0.75
 Sleepiness score 0.25 0.26 .795 [− 1.68, 2.19] .02 0.07
R2 = .43, adjusted R2 = .42, F (2, 67) = 25.60, p < .001
3. MSEL Receptive Language T
 Constant 32.31 31.82 < .001 [30.29, 34.34]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T 0.90 8.42 < .001* [0.69, 1.11] .71 1.06
 Sleepiness score − 0.24 − 0.22 .829 [− 2.48, 1.99] − .02 0.12
R2 = .53, adjusted R2 = .51, F (2, 67) = 37.04, p < .001
4. CBCL Internalizing Problems T
 Constant 50.01 54.15 < .001 [48.17, 51.86]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T − 0.30 − 3.07 .003* [− 0.49, − 0.10] − .35 0.14
 Sleepiness score 0.93 0.91 .364 [− 1.10, 2.96] .10 0.01
R2 = .15, adjusted R2 = .12, F (2, 67) = 5.86, p = .005
5. CBCL Externalizing Problems T
 Constant 49.56 48.26 < .001 [47.51, 51.61]   
 MSEL Visual Reception T − 0.10 − 0.89 .377 [− 0.31, 0.12] − .09 0.01
 Sleepiness score 5.09 4.50 < .001* [2.83, 7.35] .47 0.30
R2 = .26, adjusted R2 = .24, F (2, 67) = 11.66, p < .001
  1. N = 70. CI confidence interval, CDI-EV SS MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences expressive vocabulary standard score, MSEL Mullen Scales of Early Learning, CBCL Child Behavior Checklist
  2. *Effect remains statistically significant after Holm-Bonferroni correction