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Table 2 Arizona cognitive test battery

From: Development and validation of the Arizona Cognitive Test Battery for Down syndrome

Domain/test Description Primary ability assessed Score for analysis Test-retest r Links to brain function Age range
Benchmark
KBIT-II verbal subscale (Kaufman and Kaufman 2004) Points to pictures based on the word or phrase, answers riddles Verbal comprehension, production Total subscale raw .88 4–90 years
KBIT-II nonverbal subscale Semantic or visuo-spatial pattern completion Problem solving Total subscale raw .76 4–90 years
Scales of independent behavior—revised (Bruininks et al. 1997) Parent-report of everyday skills Adaptive behavior Standard score .98 Infancy to 80+ years
CANTAB spatial span Touching of boxes in order changing color on the screen, similar to CORSI span Immediate memory for spatial-temporal sequences Span .64 (Lowe and Rabbitt 1998) 4 years and over
Prefrontal
Modified dots task Presses a button below a cat, shifts to a new rule (pressing across the screen) for a frog, shifts between rules Inhibitory control, working memory Percent correct trials NA Activates prefrontal cortex in children in fMRI studies (Davidson et al. 2006) 4 years to late adolescence
CANTAB IED Forced-choice discrimination task with change in relevant dimension Set-shifting Errors per stage (ln transformed) .70 (Lowe and Rabbitt 1998) Impaired in populations with frontal deficits (e.g., autism, Ozonoff et al. 2004). Deficits are ameliorated by dopaminergic medication (Strauss et al. 2006) 4 years and over
Hippocampal
CANTAB Paired Associates Recall for hidden abstract patterns and associated locations Spatial associative memory Errors to success, number trials completed on first view .87 (average trials to success, Lowe and Rabbitt 1998) Differentiates between patients with AD and controls with 98% accuracy 18 months prior to a formal diagnosis (Swainson et al. 2001) 4 years and over
Virtual computer-generated arena Navigation of a virtual arena (via joystick) to find a fixed hidden target Spatial memory Percent time searching target quadrant NA Patients with hippocampal damage impaired (Skelton et al. 2000) 5 years and over
Cerebellar
Finger sequencing task (Edgin and Nadel unpublished paradigm) Sequences generated by tapping a number of fingers (1,2,3,4) to a lever in succession Motor sequencing Correct sequences, total taps 0.87, 0.91 Finger sequencing activates cerebellum (Desmond et al. 1997) 4 years and over
NEPSY visuomotor precision (ages 3–4) (Korkman et al. 1998) Follows two tracks with a pen Visuo-motor tracking, hand-eye coordination Total score generated from completion time and errors 0.81 Visuo-motor tracking utilizing coordinated hand-eye movements activates cerebellum (Miall et al. 2000) 3–4 years
CANTAB simple reaction time (SRT) Participants press a button in response to a box presented on a screen Motor response time and attention Median correct latency NA Simple motor response and attention tasks activate the cerebellum in fMRI (Allen et al. 1997) 4 years and over