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Table 2 Measures of pragmatic abilities

From: Social (pragmatic) communication disorder: a research review of this new DSM-5 diagnostic category

Test name and author Age range Norm referenced Measures/subtests Categorization/cutoffs
Direct assessment
Test of Pragmatic Language (Phelps-Terasaki and Phelps-Gunn, 1992) [43] 6:0–18:11 Yes Measures six core subcomponents of pragmatics: physical setting, audience, topic, purpose (speech acts), visual-gestural cues, and abstraction This test provides quotients, percentile ranks, and age equivalents, calculated at each 6-month interval. The summary score, called the Language Quotient, is expressed as a standard score with a mean of 100 (SD = 15). A cutoff score of 79 was chosen as indicating pragmatic impairment
Pragmatic Rating Scale (Landa, 1992) [30] 9:0 and above No Identifies 19 pragmatic behaviors. Ratings are based on conversational behavior observed throughout the session, including a 15-min conversation (during ADOS) Each pragmatic behavior is rated on a three point scale, with 0 indicating normal behavior, 1 indicating moderately abnormal behavior not considerably disruptive to the conversation, and 2 indicating that the behavior was strikingly abnormal
Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999) [44] 3:0–21:0 Yes An omnibus test of general verbal language. Four subtests are designed to assess pragmatics: pragmatic judgment, idiomatic language, nonliteral language, and inference Provides standard scores (M = 100, SD = 15), age equivalents, and percentiles
Rating scales
Children’s Communication Checklist (Bishop, 2003) [47] 4:0–16:11 Yes 70-item questionnaire that measures structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, and coherence) and pragmatic language (initiation, scripted, context, nonverbal communication, social relations, and interests) The five pragmatic scales can be combined into a pragmatic composite. A pragmatic composite score ≤132 best identified children with pragmatic language impairment
The Pragmatics Profile of Everyday Communication Skills in Children (Dewart and Summers, 1995) [48] Preschool version: birth to 4:0. School-age version: 5:0–10:0 No Interview that measures four areas of pragmatics: communicative function, response to communication, interaction and conversation, and contextual variation Provides descriptive information only used to identify strengths and weaknesses and to develop treatment goals
Language Use Inventory (O’Neill, 2002) [49] 1:6–3:11 Yes Fourteen subscales assessing communication with gestures, words, and longer sentences for a variety of functions Provides percentile ranks for 1-month age bands
Pragmatic Protocol (Prutting and Kirchner, 1987) [46] 5:0 and above No Rating scale completed after observing spontaneous and unstructured conversation which measures verbal, nonverbal, and paralinguistic aspects of pragmatic language Provides descriptive information (appropriate, inappropriate, or no opportunity to observe) for 30 items