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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics

From: Verbal labels increase the salience of novel objects for preschoolers with typical development and Williams syndrome, but not in autism

  ASD (N = 35) WS (N = 18) TD (N = 20) T test p value
ASD vs WS
T test p value
ASD vs TD
T test p value
WS vs TD
Age (months) M (SD) 45.78 (10.62) 50.00 (17.28) 50.85 (12.52) 0.35 0.10 0.50
Gender: M, F 31, 4 9, 9 13, 7
MSEL total DQ M (SD) 64.65 (30.15) 57.80 (14.17) 104.47 (13.77) 0.36 <0.001 <0.001
MSEL verbal DQ M (SD) 58.69 (28.53) 56.85 (15.94) 104.27 (15.98) 0.82 <0.001 <0.001
MSEL non-verbal DQ M (SD) 70.62 (29.23) 58.74 (13.83) 104.66 (13.87) 0.11 <0.001 <0.001
VABS communication score M (SD) 74.23 (20.11) 72.72 (10.54) 106.74 (16.53) 0.77 <0.001 <0.001
VABS daily leaving skill score M (SD) 73.29 (29.14) 71.00 (12.14) 101.05 (12.95) 0.75 <0.001 <0.001
VABS socialization score M (SD) 73.13 (15.15) 83.39 (12.17) 106.74 (16.53) 0.01 <0.001 <0.001
VABS motor skill score M (SD) 76.26 (20.35) 70.00 (10.88) 103.00 (9.46) 0.29 <0.001 <0.001
VABS ABC score M (SD) 71.23 (20.65) 71.39 (10.10) 103.89 (11.52) 0.97 <0.001 <0.001
ADOS social affect M (SD) 13.43 (4.62)   
ADOS repetitive behaviors M (SD) 4.62 (2.14)