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Table 1 Participant characteristics (means and standard deviations) for the diagnostic groups (TD, ASD, SLI) and language status groups (NL, LI)

From: The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by children with specific language impairment and autism spectrum disorders

  TD Group (n = 36) ASD Group (n = 27) SLI Group (n = 21) NL Group (n = 54) LI Group (n = 30)
Age (years) 9.5 (1.0) 9.6 (1.2) 9.9 (1.1) 9.5 (1.1) 9.8 (1.0)
Nonverbal IQa 106.8 (10.3) 107.6 (13.9) 101.4 (7.4) 108.3 (12.0) 100.3 (7.8)
SESb 16.2 (2.8) 16.2 (3.2) 16.2 (4.6) 16.4 (3.0) 15.9 (4.0)
Language Comprehensionc 108.4 (13.5) 90.1 (19.9) 81.5 (9.9) 105.8 (13.8) 77.5 (12.1)
Language Productiond 107.9 (12.8) 90.9 (20.7) 77.7 (9.4) 106.4 (12.5) 74.7 (11.2)
Core Languagee 107.2 (12.3) 89.1 (21.0) 76.8 (7.2) 105.4 (11.9) 73.2 (10.8)
Social Communicationf 4.1 (4.1) 18.7 (6.7) 7.7 (5.4) 8.9 (8.5) 11.4 (7.8)
Race/Ethnicity 24 White 24 White 12 White 41 White 19 White
  6 Black 0 Black 6 Black 6 Black 6 Black
  1 Asian 0 Asian 1 Asian 1 Asian 1 Asian
  0 Nat Amg 0 Nat Am 1 Nat Am 0 Nat Am 1 Nat Am
  5 Multih 3 Multi 1 Multi 6 Multi 3 Multi
  1 Hisp/Latni 4 Hisp/Latn 3 Hisp/Latn 2 Hisp/Latn 6 Hisp/Latn
  1. Note: TD typical development, ASD autism spectrum disorders, SLI specific language impairment
  2. aWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition Perceptual Reasoning Composite Score
  3. bSocioeconomic status based on mother’s years of education
  4. cClinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4th Edition (CELF-4) Receptive Language Index Score
  5. dCELF-4 Expressive Language Index Score
  6. eCELF-4 Core Language Score
  7. fSocial Communication Questionnaire score
  8. gNat Am = Native American
  9. hMulti = multiracial/other
  10. iHisp/Latn = Hispanic/Latino