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Table 6 Profiles of sleep disturbance in children with ASD, SMS, AS and TSC compared to TD children

From: A cross-syndrome cohort comparison of sleep disturbance in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome, Angelman syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and tuberous sclerosis complex

  AS SMS TSC ASD
Sleep anxiety O O O
Bedtime resistance O O O +
Sleep onset latency O O + ++
Night waking ++ ++ + +
Sleep-disordered breathing + ++ O +
Parasomnias + ++ + +
Daytime sleepiness ++ ++ + +
Severe early morning waking problems ++ +++ + ++
  1. O effect size r < 0.2, + small effect size r 0.20–0.49 or odds ratio 0.2–9.0, ++ medium effect size r 0.5–0.8 or odds ratio 10.0–49.0, +++ odds ratio > 50