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Table 4 Parental characteristics in relation to the child's outcome at 4 years

From: Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

Characteristica Status, mean ± SD t
(d.f. = 72)
P Cohen d
  TD, n = 60 SLI, n = 14 b    
Age of mother at end of FTE, years 22.06 ± 3.6 20.93 ± 2.92 1.09 0.279 0.33
Parent non-word repetition, time 1c 11.17 ± 2.63 9.00 ± 2.57 2.79 0.007 0.84
Parent non-word repetition time 2c 12.71 ± 1.93 12.53 ± 2.26 0.31 0.758 0.09
Mill-Hill vocabulary, time 2, raw 44.73 ± 7.32 43.07 ± 8.05 0.75 0.457 0.23
  1. aAbbreviations: FTE, full-time education; SLI, specific language impairment; TD, typical development.
  2. bParental data not available for one SLI case.
  3. c Scaled score, mean ± 10 ± 3.