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Table 1 Neuropsychological studies on working memory in high-functioning adolescents with ASD

From: Working memory deficits in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: neuropsychological and neuroimaging correlates

Study Age in years Participant groups General IQ (SD) Matching criteria Working memory tests (maximum load) ASD impaired?
Ozonoff and Strayer (2001) [11] 7-18 (n = 25) Autism 96.3 (17.8) Age Running memory task (2) N
(n = 15) TS 99.0 (11.4) Gender Spatial memory span (5)
(n = 15) TYP 107.1 (10.5) IQ Box search task (5)
Geurts et al. (2004) [2] 6-13 (n = 41) HFA 98.3 (18.4) Age SoP (12) N
(n = 54) ADHD 99.5 (11.5) Gender
(n = 41) TYP 111.5 (18.0)
Goldberg et al. 2005 [55] 8-12 (n = 17) HFA 96.5 (15.9) Age CANTAB SWM (8) Y
(n = 21) ADHD 113.8 (10.3)
(n = 32) TYP 112.6 (12.1)
Landa and Goldberg (2005) [54] 7-17.5 (n = 19) HFA 109.7 (15.8) Age CANTAB SWM (8) Y
(n = 19) TYP 113.4 (14.3) Gender
IQ
Williams et al. (2005) [52] 8-16 (n = 24) HFA 109.7 (16.1) Age WRAML FW (6) Y
(n = 44) TYP 110.0 (10.7) IQ
Happé et al. (2006) [47] 8-16 (n = 32) HFA, AS 99.7 (18.7) Age CANTAB SWM (8) N
(n = 30) ADHD, HD 99.1 (17.1) Gender
(n = 32) TYP 106.8 (13.4) IQ
Verté et al. (2006) [12] 6-13 (n = 50) HFA 98.2 (17.3) Age SoP (12) Y
(n = 37) AS 105.2 (16.3) Gender
(n = 25) PDD-NOS 98.3 (14.4)
(n = 47) TYP 112.1 (9.7)
Williams et al. (2006) [51] 8-16 (n = 38) HFA 103.8 (14.3) Age WRAML FW (6) Y
(n = 38) TYP 107.2 (9.4) IQ
Luna et al. (2007) [50] 8-33 (n = 61) HFA 110.7 (16.8) Age ODR Y
Gender
(n = 61) TYP 111.0 (13.8)
   IQ
Steele et al. (2007) [49] 8-29 (n = 29) HFA 107.8 (11.0) Age CANTAB SWM (8) Y
(n = 29) TYP 110.8 (9.9) IQ
McGonigle-Chalmers et al. (2008) [57] 6.8-13.9 (n = 20) Autism, AS * 76 (19.9) Age Size sequencing task Y
(n = 20) TYP * 90 (8.6)
Sinzig et al. (2008) [48] 6-18 (n = 20) HFA, AS 112 (17.7) Gender CANTAB SWM (8) N
(n = 20) HFA, AS + ADHD 103 (13.0)
(n = 20) ADHD 98 (13.4)
(n = 20) TYP 113 (11.9)
Corbett et al. (2009) [53] 7-12 (n = 18) ASD 94.2(17.8) Age CANTAB SS (9) Y
(n = 18) ADHD 105.2(12.8) CANTAB SWM (8)
   (n = 18) TYP 112.2(14.8)    
  1. ADHD: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; AS: Asperger syndrome; ASD: autism spectrum disorders; FW: finger windows; HD: hyperkinetic disorder; HFA: high-functioning autism; ODR: oculomotor delayed response task; PDD-NOS: pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified; SoP: self-ordered pointing task; SS: spatial span; SWM: spatial working memory; TS: Tourette syndrome; TYP: typical development. * Percentile rank.
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