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Table 1 Study characteristics of publications in meta-analysis

From: Language delay aggregates in toddler siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder

Publication HR/LR Mean age (mo.) Language delay criteria Clinical best estimate measures Language delay (HR versus LR) MSEL receptive language MSEL expressive language
Landa and Garrett-Mayer [72] 38/25 24 ≤ 1 SD mean: M-CDI or PLS ADOS OR = 3.57 (.70–18.16)
χ2 = 1.60, p = .21
n/a n/a
Iverson and Wozniak [115] 14/18 18 ≤ 5th percentile: M-CDI words produced n/a OR = 37.00 (1.87–732.72)
χ2 = 8.78, p = .003
n/a n/a
Gamliel et al. [116] 38/38 24 ≤ 2 SD mean: BSID or RDLS ADOS-G
ADI-R
OR = 7.33 (1.50–35.86)
χ2 = 5.94, p = .015
n/a n/a
Mitchell et al. [45] 91/52 24 ≤ 1.5 SD mean: MSEL or PLS ADOS
DSM-IV-TR
OR = 1.65 (.50–5.47)
χ2 = .29, p = .59
n/a n/a
Toth et al. [117] 42/20 21 n/a ADOS
ADI-R
DSM-IV-TR
n/a 54.50 (6.40)
46.55 (15.60)
48.45 (6.65)
49.07(12.24)
Stone et al. [118] 64/42 16 n/a n/a n/a 48.2 (10.8)
43.8 (12.6)
48.7 (10.5)
45.1 (11.1)
Paul et al. [119] 38/31 12 n/a n/a n/a 46.1 (7.2) 41.1 (9.7) 47.4 (12.0)
40.8 (10.7)
Curtin and Vouloumanos [120] 31/31 12 n/a n/a n/a 45.97 (7.11)
42.16 (7.14)
53.93 (10.47)
49.87 (11.04)
Messinger et al. [66] 989/583 24 n/a ADOS
MSEL
n/a 27.28 (5.12)
24.63 (5.67)
25.78 (5.29)
24.11 (5.78)
  1. Except where stated, language delay was defined as either receptive or expressive language delay. Odds ratios (ORs) are listed with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. With the exception of Messinger et al., 2015, which used age equivalent scores at 24 months of age, language scores consisted of T-scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), with low-risk siblings without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) listed first and high-risk siblings without ASD listed second. Bolded values indicate significant risk group differences at p < .05. mo. months, HR high-risk siblings without ASD, LR low-risk siblings without ASD, M-CDI MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, BSID Bayley Scales of Infant Development, RDLS Reynell Developmental Language Scales, PLS Preschool Language Scale, ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS-G Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-General, ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders, 4th edition, text revision